26 U.S.C. § 368 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 26. Internal Revenue Code § 368. Definitions relating to corporate reorganizations

(a) Reorganization.--

(1) In general. --For purposes of parts I and II and this part, the term “reorganization” means--

(A)  a statutory merger or consolidation;

(B)  the acquisition by one corporation, in exchange solely for all or a part of its voting stock (or in exchange solely for all or a part of the voting stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation), of stock of another corporation if, immediately after the acquisition, the acquiring corporation has control of such other corporation (whether or not such acquiring corporation had control immediately before the acquisition);

(C)  the acquisition by one corporation, in exchange solely for all or a part of its voting stock (or in exchange solely for all or a part of the voting stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation), of substantially all of the properties of another corporation, but in determining whether the exchange is solely for stock the assumption by the acquiring corporation of a liability of the other shall be disregarded;

(D)  a transfer by a corporation of all or a part of its assets to another corporation if immediately after the transfer the transferor, or one or more of its shareholders (including persons who were shareholders immediately before the transfer), or any combination thereof, is in control of the corporation to which the assets are transferred;  but only if, in pursuance of the plan, stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 354 , 355 , or 356 ;

(E)  a recapitalization;

(F)  a mere change in identity, form, or place of organization of one corporation, however effected;  or

(G)  a transfer by a corporation of all or part of its assets to another corporation in a Title 11 or similar case;  but only if, in pursuance of the plan, stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 354 , 355 , or 356 .

(2) Special rules relating to paragraph (1).--

(A) Reorganizations described in both paragraph (1)(C) and paragraph (1)(D). --If a transaction is described in both paragraph (1)(C) and paragraph (1)(D), then, for purposes of this subchapter (other than for purposes of subparagraph (C)), such transaction shall be treated as described only in paragraph (1)(D).

(B) Additional consideration in certain paragraph (1)(C) cases. --If--

(i)  one corporation acquires substantially all of the properties of another corporation,

(ii)  the acquisition would qualify under paragraph (1)(C) but for the fact that the acquiring corporation exchanges money or other property in addition to voting stock, and

(iii)  the acquiring corporation acquires, solely for voting stock described in paragraph (1)(C), property of the other corporation having a fair market value which is at least 80 percent of the fair market value of all of the property of the other corporation,

then such acquisition shall (subject to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph) be treated as qualifying under paragraph (1)(C).  Solely for the purpose of determining whether clause (iii) of the preceding sentence applies, the amount of any liability assumed by the acquiring corporation shall be treated as money paid for the property.

(C) Transfers of assets or stock to subsidiaries in certain paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), and (1)(G) cases. --A transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), or (1)(C) shall not be disqualified by reason of the fact that part or all of the assets or stock which were acquired in the transaction are transferred to a corporation controlled by the corporation acquiring such assets or stock.  A similar rule shall apply to a transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(G) where the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 354(b)(1) are met with respect to the acquisition of the assets.

(D) Use of stock of controlling corporation in paragraph (1)(A) and (1)(G) cases. --The acquisition by one corporation, in exchange for stock of a corporation (referred to in this subparagraph as “controlling corporation”) which is in control of the acquiring corporation, of substantially all of the properties of another corporation shall not disqualify a transaction under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(G) if--

(i)  no stock of the acquiring corporation is used in the transaction, and

(ii)  in the case of a transaction under paragraph (1)(A), such transaction would have qualified under paragraph (1)(A) had the merger been into the controlling corporation.

(E) Statutory merger using voting stock of corporation controlling merged corporation. --A transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(A) shall not be disqualified by reason of the fact that stock of a corporation (referred to in this subparagraph as the “controlling corporation”) which before the merger was in control of the merged corporation is used in the transaction, if--

(i)  after the transaction, the corporation surviving the merger holds substantially all of its properties and of the properties of the merged corporation (other than stock of the controlling corporation distributed in the transaction);  and

(ii)  in the transaction, former shareholders of the surviving corporation exchanged, for an amount of voting stock of the controlling corporation, an amount of stock in the surviving corporation which constitutes control of such corporation.

(F) Certain transactions involving 2 or more investment companies.--

(i)  If immediately before a transaction described in paragraph (1) (other than subparagraph (E) thereof), 2 or more parties to the transaction were investment companies, then the transaction shall not be considered to be a reorganization with respect to any such investment company (and its shareholders and security holders) unless it was a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or a corporation which meets the requirements of clause (ii).

(ii)  A corporation meets the requirements of this clause if not more than 25 percent of the value of its total assets is invested in the stock and securities of any one issuer, and not more than 50 percent of the value of its total assets is invested in the stock and securities of 5 or fewer issuers.  For purposes of this clause, all members of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1563(a) ) shall be treated as one issuer.  For purposes of this clause, a person holding stock in a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or an investment company which meets the requirements of this clause shall, except as provided in regulations, be treated as holding its proportionate share of the assets held by such company or trust.

(iii)  For purposes of this subparagraph the term “investment company” means a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or a corporation 50 percent or more of the value of whose total assets are stock and securities and 80 percent or more of the value of whose total assets are assets held for investment.  In making the 50-percent and 80-percent determinations under the preceding sentence, stock and securities in any subsidiary corporation shall be disregarded and the parent corporation shall be deemed to own its ratable share of the subsidiary's assets, and a corporation shall be considered a subsidiary if the parent owns 50 percent or more of the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock outstanding.

(iv)  For purposes of this subparagraph, in determining total assets there shall be excluded cash and cash items (including receivables).  Government securities, and, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, assets acquired (through incurring indebtedness or otherwise) for purposes of meeting the requirements of clause (ii) or ceasing to be an investment company.

(v)  This subparagraph shall not apply if the stock of each investment company is owned substantially by the same persons in the same proportions.

(vi)  If an investment company which does not meet the requirements of clause (ii) acquires assets of another corporation, clause (i) shall be applied to such investment company and its shareholders and security holders as though its assets had been acquired by such other corporation.  If such investment company acquires stock of another corporation in a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(B) , clause (i) shall be applied to the shareholders of such investment company as though they had exchanged with such other corporation all of their stock in such company for stock having a fair market value equal to the fair market value of their stock of such investment company immediately after the exchange.  For purposes of section 1001 , the deemed acquisition or exchange referred to in the two preceding sentences shall be treated as a sale or exchange of property by the corporation and by the shareholders and security holders to which clause (i) is applied.

(vii)  For purposes of clauses (ii) and (iii), the term “securities” includes obligations of State and local governments, commodity futures contracts, shares of regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts, and other investments constituting a security within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940 ( 15 U.S.C. 80a-2(36) )   1.

(G) Distribution requirement for paragraph (1)(C).--

(i) In general. --A transaction shall fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(C) unless the acquired corporation distributes the stock, securities, and other properties it receives, as well as its other properties, in pursuance of the plan of reorganization.  For purposes of the preceding sentence, if the acquired corporation is liquidated pursuant to the plan of reorganization, any distribution to its creditors in connection with such liquidation shall be treated as pursuant to the plan of reorganization.

(ii) Exception. --The Secretary may waive the application of clause (i) to any transaction subject to any conditions the Secretary may prescribe.

(H) Special rules for determining whether certain transactions are qualified under paragraph (1)(D). --For purposes of determining whether a transaction qualifies under paragraph (1)(D)--

(i)  in the case of a transaction with respect to which the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 354(b)(1) are met, the term “control” has the meaning given such term by section 304(c) , and

(ii)  in the case of a transaction with respect to which the requirements of section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355 ) are met, the fact that the shareholders of the distributing corporation dispose of part or all of the distributed stock, or the fact that the corporation whose stock was distributed issues additional stock, shall not be taken into account.

(3) Additional rules relating to Title 11 and similar cases.--

(A) Title 11 or similar case defined. --For purposes of this part, the term “Title 11 or similar case” means--

(i)  a case under Title 11 of the United States Code, or

(ii)  a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding in a Federal or State court.

(B) Transfer of assets in a Title 11 or similar case. --In applying paragraph (1)(G), a transfer of the assets of a corporation shall be treated as made in a Title 11 or similar case if and only if--

(i)  any party to the reorganization is under the jurisdiction of the court in such case, and

(ii)  the transfer is pursuant to a plan of reorganization approved by the court.

(C) Reorganizations qualifying under paragraph (1)(G) and another provision. --If a transaction would (but for this subparagraph) qualify both--

(i)  under subparagraph (G) of paragraph (1), and

(ii)  under any other subparagraph of paragraph (1) or under section 332 or 351 ,

then, for purposes of this subchapter (other than section 357(c)(1) ), such transaction shall be treated as qualifying only under subparagraph (G) of paragraph (1).

(D) Agency receivership proceedings which involve financial institutions.--  For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), in the case of a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding before a Federal or State agency involving a financial institution referred to in section 581 or 591 , the agency shall be treated as a court.

(E) Application of paragraph (2)(E)(ii). --In the case of a Title 11 or similar case, the requirement of clause (ii) of paragraph (2)(E) shall be treated as met if--

(i)  no former shareholder of the surviving corporation received any consideration for his stock, and

(ii)  the former creditors of the surviving corporation exchanged, for an amount of voting stock of the controlling corporation, debt of the surviving corporation which had a fair market value equal to 80 percent or more of the total fair market value of the debt of the surviving corporation.

(b) Party to a reorganization. --For purposes of this part, the term “a party to a reorganization” includes--

(1)  a corporation resulting from a reorganization, and

(2)  both corporations, in the case of a reorganization resulting from the acquisition by one corporation of stock or properties of another.

In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(B) or (1)(C) of subsection (a), if the stock exchanged for the stock or properties is stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation, the term “a party to a reorganization” includes the corporation so controlling the acquiring corporation.  In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), or (1)(G) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(C) of subsection (a), the term “a party to a reorganization” includes the corporation controlling the corporation to which the acquired assets or stock are transferred.  In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(G) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(D) of that subsection, the term “a party to a reorganization” includes the controlling corporation referred to in such paragraph (2)(D).  In the case of a reorganization qualifying under subsection (a)(1)(A) by reason of subsection (a)(2)(E), the term “party to a reorganization” includes the controlling corporation referred to in subsection (a)(2)(E).

(c) Control defined. --For purposes of part I (other than section 304 ), part II, this part, and part V, the term “control” means the ownership of stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and at least 80 percent of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock of the corporation.

1 So in original.  A reference to 15 U.S.C. 80a-2(a)(36) was probably intended.

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