1. A person may, subject to the provisions of subdivision two, use physical force
upon another person when and to the extent he or she reasonably believes such to be
necessary to defend himself, herself or a third person from what he or she reasonably
believes to be the use or imminent use of unlawful physical force by such other person,
(a) The latter's conduct was provoked by the actor with intent to cause physical injury
to another person; or
(b) The actor was the initial aggressor; except that in such case the use of physical
force is nevertheless justifiable if the actor has withdrawn from the encounter and
effectively communicated such withdrawal to such other person but the latter persists
in continuing the incident by the use or threatened imminent use of unlawful physical
(c) The physical force involved is the product of a combat by agreement not specifically
authorized by law.
2. A person may not use deadly physical force upon another person under circumstances
specified in subdivision one unless:
(a) The actor reasonably believes that such other person is using or about to use
deadly physical force. Even in such case, however, the actor may not use deadly physical force if he or
she knows that with complete personal safety, to oneself and others he or she may
avoid the necessity of so doing by retreating; except that the actor is under no
duty to retreat if he or she is:
(i) in his or her dwelling and not the initial aggressor; or
(ii) a police officer or peace officer or a person assisting a police officer or a
peace officer at the latter's direction, acting pursuant to section 35.30; or
(b) He or she reasonably believes that such other person is committing or attempting
to commit a kidnapping, forcible rape, forcible criminal sexual act or robbery; or
(c) He or she reasonably believes that such other person is committing or attempting
to commit a burglary, and the circumstances are such that the use of deadly physical
force is authorized by subdivision three of section 35.20.
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