(a) The following are admissible as evidence and create a presumption of dishonor
and of any notice of dishonor stated:
(1) A document regular in form as provided in subsection (b) which purports to be
(2) A purported stamp or writing of the drawee, payor bank, or presenting bank on
or accompanying the instrument stating that acceptance or payment has been refused
unless reasons for the refusal are stated and the reasons are not consistent with
(3) A book or record of the drawee, payor bank, or collecting bank, kept in the usual
course of business which shows dishonor, even if there is no evidence of who made
(b) A protest is a certificate of dishonor made by a United States consul or vice
consul, or a notary public or other person authorized to administer oaths by the law
of the place where dishonor occurs. It may be made upon information satisfactory to that person. The protest must identify the instrument and certify either that presentment has been
made or, if not made, the reason why it was not made, and that the instrument has
been dishonored by nonacceptance or nonpayment. The protest may also certify that notice of dishonor has been given to some or all
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