U.S. Federal and State Cases, Codes, and Articles
Select a tab to search United States Cases, Codes, or Articles
U.S. Federal and State Cases, Codes, and Articles
Select a tab to search United States Cases, Codes, or Articles
Search for cases
Indicates required field
Search by keyword or citation
Indicates required field
Search blogs, article pages, and cases and codes
Indicates required field
Current as of October 02, 2022  Updated by FindLaw Staff
(a) A swap dealer that is requesting the approval of the Commission or the approval of a registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member to use internal models to compute its market risk exposure requirement and credit risk exposure requirement under § 23.102 must include the following information as part of its application:
(1) An executive summary of the information within its application and, if applicable, an identification of the ultimate holding company of the swap dealer;
(2) A list of the categories of positions that the swap dealer holds in its proprietary accounts and a brief description of the methods that the swap dealer will use to calculate deductions for market risk and credit risk on those categories of positions;
(3) A description of the mathematical models used by the swap dealer under this Appendix A to compute the VaR of the swap dealer's positions; the stressed VaR of the swap dealer's positions; the specific risk of the swap dealer's positions subject to specific risk; comprehensive risk of the swap dealer's positions; and the incremental risk of the swap dealer's positions, and deductions for credit risk exposure. The description should encompass the creation, use, and maintenance of the mathematical models; a description of the swap dealer's internal risk management controls over the models, including a description of each category of persons who may input data into the models; if a mathematical model incorporates empirical correlations across risk categories, a description of the process for measuring correlations; a description of the backtesting procedures the swap dealer will use to backtest the mathematical models; a description of how each mathematical model satisfies the applicable qualitative and quantitative requirements set forth in this Appendix A and a statement describing the extent to which each mathematical model used to compute deductions for market risk exposures and credit risk exposures will be used as part of the risk analyses and reports presented to senior management;
(4) If the swap dealer is applying to the Commission for approval or a registered futures association to use scenario analysis to calculate deductions for market risk for certain positions, a list of those types of positions, a description of how those deductions will be calculated using scenario analysis, and an explanation of why each scenario analysis is appropriate to calculate deductions for market risk on those types of positions;
(5) A description of how the swap dealer will calculate current exposure;
(6) A description of how the swap dealer will determine internal credit ratings of counterparties and internal credit riskweights of counterparties, if applicable;
(7) For each instance in which a mathematical model to be used by the swap dealer to calculate a deduction for market risk exposure or to calculate maximum potential exposure for a particular product or counterparty differs from the mathematical model used by the swap dealer's ultimate holding company or the swap dealer's affiliates (if applicable) to calculate an allowance for market risk exposure or to calculate maximum potential exposure for that same product or counterparty, a description of the difference(s) between the mathematical models;
(8) A description of the swap dealer's process of reestimating, reevaluating, and updating internal models to ensure continued applicability and relevance; and
(9) Sample risk reports that are provided to management at the swap dealer who are responsible for managing the swap dealer's risk.
(b) The application of the swap dealer shall be supplemented by other information relating to the internal risk management control system, mathematical models, and financial position of the swap dealer that the Commission or a registered futures association may request to complete its review of the application.
(c) A person who files an application with the Commission pursuant to this appendix for which it seeks confidential treatment may clearly mark each page or segregable portion of each page with the words “Confidential Treatment Requested.” All information submitted in connection with the application will be accorded confidential treatment by the Commission, to the extent permitted by law.
(d) If any of the information filed with the Commission or a registered futures association as part of the application of the swap dealer is found to be or becomes inaccurate before the Commission or a registered futures association approves the application, the swap dealer must notify the Commission or the registered futures association promptly and provide the Commission or the registered futures association with a description of the circumstances in which the information was found to be or has become inaccurate along with updated, accurate information.
(e) The Commission or the registered futures association may approve the application or an amendment to the application, in whole or in part, subject to any conditions or limitations the Commission or the registered futures association may require if the Commission or the registered futures association finds the approval to be appropriate in the public interest, after determining, among other things, whether the swap dealer has met all the requirements of this Appendix A.
(f) A swap dealer shall amend its application under this Appendix A and submit the amendment to the Commission and the registered futures association for approval before it may materially change a mathematical model used to calculate market risk exposure requirements or credit risk exposure requirements or before it may materially change its internal risk management control system with respect to such model.
(g) As a condition for a swap dealer to use internal models to compute deductions for market risk exposure and credit risk exposure under this Appendix A, the swap dealer agrees that:
(1) It will notify the Commission and the registered futures association 45 days before it ceases to use internal models to compute deductions for market risk exposure and credit risk exposure under this Appendix A; and
(2) The Commission or the registered futures association may determine that the notice will become effective after a shorter or longer period of time if the swap dealer consents or if the Commission determines that a shorter or longer period of time is appropriate in the public interest.
(h) The Commission or the registered futures association may by written order revoke a swap dealer's approval to use internal models to compute market risk exposures and credit risk exposures on certain credit exposures arising from transactions in derivatives instruments if the Commission or the registered futures association finds that such approval is no longer appropriate in the public interest. In making its finding, the Commission or the registered futures association will consider the compliance history of the swap dealer related to its use of models and the swap dealer's compliance with its internal risk management controls. If the Commission or the registered futures association withdraws all or part of a swap dealer's approval to use internal models, the swap dealer shall compute market risk exposure requirements and credit risk exposure requirements in accordance with § 23.103.
(i) VaR models. A valueatrisk (“VaR”) model must meet the following minimum requirements in order to be approved:
(1) Qualitative requirements.
(i) The VaR model used to calculate market risk exposure or credit risk exposure for a position must be integrated into the daily internal risk management system of the swap dealer;
(ii) The VaR model must be reviewed both periodically and annually. The periodic review may be conducted by personnel of the swap dealer that are independent from the personnel that perform the VaR model calculations. The annual review must be conducted by a qualified third party service. The review must include:
(A) An evaluation of the conceptual soundness of, and empirical support for, the internal models;
(B) An ongoing monitoring process that includes verification of processes and the comparison of the swap dealer's model outputs with relevant internal and external data sources or estimation techniques; and
(C) An outcomes analysis process that includes backtesting. This process must include a comparison of the changes in the swap dealer's portfolio value that would have occurred were endofday positions to remain unchanged (therefore, excluding fees, commissions, reserves, net interest income, and intraday trading) with VaR–based measures during a sample period not used in model development.
(iii) For purposes of computing market risk, the swap dealer must determine the appropriate multiplication factor as follows:
(A) Beginning three months after the swap dealer begins using the VaR model to calculate the market risk exposure, the swap dealer must conduct monthly backtesting of the model by comparing its actual daily net trading profit or loss with the corresponding VaR measure generated by the VaR model, using a 99 percent, onetailed confidence level with price changes equivalent to a one businessday movement in rates and prices, for each of the past 250 business days, or other period as may be appropriate for the first year of its use;
(B) On the last business day of each quarter, the swap dealer must identify the number of backtesting exceptions of the VaR model using actual daily net trading profit and loss, as that term is defined in §§ 23.100. An exception has occurred when for a business day the actual net trading loss, if any, exceeds the corresponding VaR measure. The counting period shall be for the prior 250 business days except that during the first year of use of the model another appropriate period may be used; and
(C) The swap dealer must use the multiplication factor indicated in Table 1 of this Appendix A in determining its market risk until it obtains the next quarter's backtesting results;
Table 1—Multiplication Factor Based on the Number of BackTesting Exceptions of the VaR Model 


Number of exceptions 
Multiplication factor 
4 or fewer 
3.00 
5 
3.40 
6 
3.50 
7 
3.65 
8 
3.75 
9 
3.85 
10 or more 
4.00 
(iv) For purposes of computing the credit equivalent amount of the swap dealer's exposures to a counterparty, the swap dealer must determine the appropriate multiplication factor as follows:
(A) Beginning three months after it begins using the VaR model to calculate maximum potential exposure, the swap dealer must conduct backtesting of the model by comparing, for at least 80 counterparties (or the actual number of counterparties if the swap dealer does not have 80 counterparties) with widely varying types and sizes of positions with the firm, the ten business day change in its current exposure to the counterparty based on its positions held at the beginning of the tenbusiness day period with the corresponding tenbusiness day maximum potential exposure for the counterparty generated by the VaR model;
(B) As of the last business day of each quarter, the swap dealer must identify the number of backtesting exceptions of the VaR model, that is, the number of tenbusiness day periods in the past 250 business days, or other period as may be appropriate for the first year of its use, for which the change in current exposure to a counterparty, assuming the portfolio remains static for the tenbusiness day period, exceeds the corresponding maximum potential exposure; and
(C) The swap dealer will propose, as part of its application, a schedule of multiplication factors, which must be approved by the Commission, or a registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member, based on the number of backtesting exceptions of the VaR model. The swap dealer must use the multiplication factor indicated in the approved schedule in determining the credit equivalent amount of its exposures to a counterparty until it obtains the next quarter's backtesting results, unless the Commission or the registered futures association determines, based on, among other relevant factors, a review of the swap dealer's internal risk management control system, including a review of the VaR model, that a different adjustment or other action is appropriate.
(2) Quantitative requirements.
(i) For purposes of determining market risk exposure, the VaR model must use a 99 percent, onetailed confidence level with price changes equivalent to a ten businessday movement in rates and prices;
(ii) For purposes of determining maximum potential exposure, the VaR model must use a 99 percent, onetailed confidence level with price changes equivalent to a oneyear movement in rates and prices; or based on a review of the swap dealer's procedures for managing collateral and if the collateral is marked to market daily and the swap dealer has the ability to call for additional collateral daily, the Commission, or the registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member, may approve a time horizon of not less than ten business days;
(iii) The VaR model must use an effective historical observation period of at least one year. The swap dealer must consider the effects of market stress in its construction of the model. Historical data sets must be updated at least monthly and reassessed whenever market prices or volatilities change significantly or portfolio composition warrant; and
(iv) The VaR model must take into account and incorporate all significant, identifiable market risk factors applicable to positions in the accounts of the swap dealer, including:
(A) Risks arising from the nonlinear price characteristics of derivatives and the sensitivity of the fair value of those positions to changes in the volatility of the derivatives' underlying rates, prices, or other material risk factors. A swap dealer with a large or complex portfolio with nonlinear derivatives (such as options or positions with embedded optionality) must measure the volatility of these positions at different maturities and/or strike prices, where material;
(B) Empirical correlations within and across risk factors provided that the swap dealer validates and demonstrates the reasonableness of its process for measuring correlations, if the VaR–based measure does not incorporate empirical correlations across risk categories, the swap dealer must add the separate measures from its internal models used to calculate the VaR–based measure for the appropriate risk categories (interest rate risk, credit spread risk, equity price risk, foreign exchange rate risk, and/or commodity price risk) to determine its aggregate VaR–based measure, or, alternatively, risk factors sufficient to cover all the market risk inherent in the positions in the proprietary or other trading accounts of the swap dealer, including interest rate risk, equity price risk, foreign exchange risk, and commodity price risk; and
(C) Spread risk, where applicable, and segments of the yield curve sufficient to capture differences in volatility and imperfect correlation of rates along the yield curve for securities and derivatives that are sensitive to different interest rates. For material positions in major currencies and markets, modeling techniques must incorporate enough segments of the yield curve—in no case less than six—to capture differences in volatility and less than perfect correlation of rates along the yield curve.
(j) Stressed VaR–based Measure. A stressed VaR model must meet the following minimum requirements in order to be approved:
(1) Requirements for stressed VaR–based measure.
(i) A swap dealer must calculate a stressed VaR–based measure for its positions using the same model(s) used to calculate the VaR–based measure under paragraph (i) of this appendix, subject to the same confidence level and holding period applicable to the VaR–based measure, but with model inputs calibrated to historical data from a continuous 12–month period that reflects a period of significant financial stress appropriate to the swap dealer's current portfolio.
(ii) The stressed VaR–based measure must be calculated at least weekly and be no less than the swap dealer's VaR–based measure.
(iii) A swap dealer must have policies and procedures that describe how it determines the period of significant financial stress used to calculate the swap dealer's stressed VaR–based measure under this appendix and must be able to provide empirical support for the period used. The swap dealer must obtain the prior approval of the Commission, or a registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member, if the swap dealer makes any material changes to these policies and procedures. The policies and procedures must address:
(A) How the swap dealer links the period of significant financial stress used to calculate the stressed VaR–based measure to the composition and directional bias of its current portfolio; and
(B) The swap dealer's process for selecting, reviewing, and updating the period of significant financial stress used to calculate the stressed VaR–based measure and for monitoring the appropriateness of the period to the swap dealer's current portfolio.
(iv) Nothing in this appendix prevents the Commission or the registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member from requiring a swap dealer to use a different period of significant financial stress in the calculation of the stressed VaR–based measure.
(k) Specific Risk. A specific risk model must meet the following minimum requirements in order to be approved:
(1) General requirement. A swap dealer must use one of the methods in this paragraph (k) to measure the specific risk for each of its debt, equity, and securitization positions with specific risk.
(2) Modeled specific risk. A swap dealer may use models to measure the specific risk of its proprietary positions. A swap dealer must use models to measure the specific risk of correlation trading positions that are modeled under paragraph (m) of this appendix.
(i) Requirements for specific risk modeling.
(A) If a swap dealer uses internal models to measure the specific risk of a portfolio, the internal models must:
(1) Explain the historical price variation in the portfolio;
(2) Be responsive to changes in market conditions;
(3) Be robust to an adverse environment, including signaling rising risk in an adverse environment; and
(4) Capture all material components of specific risk for the debt and equity positions in the portfolio. Specifically, the internal models must:
(i) Capture namerelated basis risk;
(ii) Capture event risk and idiosyncratic risk; and
(iii) Capture and demonstrate sensitivity to material differences between positions that are similar but not identical and to changes in portfolio composition and concentrations.
(B) If a swap dealer calculates an incremental risk measure for a portfolio of debt or equity positions under paragraph (l) of this appendix, the swap dealer is not required to capture default and credit migration risks in its internal models used to measure the specific risk of those portfolios.
(C) A swap dealer shall validate a specific risk model through backtesting.
(ii) Specific risk fully modeled for one or more portfolios. If the swap dealer's VaR–based measure captures all material aspects of specific risk for one or more of its portfolios of debt, equity, or correlation trading positions, the swap dealer has no specific risk addon for those portfolios.
(3) Specific risk not modeled.
(i) If the swap dealer's VaR–based measure does not capture all material aspects of specific risk for a portfolio of debt, equity, or correlation trading positions, the swap dealer must calculate a specificrisk addon for the portfolio under the standardized measurement method as described in 12 CFR 217.210.
(ii) A swap dealer must calculate a specific risk addon under the standardized measurement method as described in 12 CFR 217.200 for all of its securitization positions that are not modeled under this paragraph (k).
(l) Incremental Risk. An incremental risk model must meet the following minimum requirements in order to be approved:
(1) General requirement. A swap dealer that measures the specific risk of a portfolio of debt positions under paragraph (k) of this appendix using internal models must calculate at least weekly an incremental risk measure for that portfolio according to the requirements in this appendix. The incremental risk measure is the swap dealer's measure of potential losses due to incremental risk over a oneyear time horizon at a onetail, 99.9 percent confidence level, either under the assumption of a constant level of risk, or under the assumption of constant positions. With the prior approval of the Commission or a registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member, a swap dealer may choose to include portfolios of equity positions in its incremental risk model, provided that it consistently includes such equity positions in a manner that is consistent with how the swap dealer internally measures and manages the incremental risk of such positions at the portfolio level. If equity positions are included in the model, for modeling purposes default is considered to have occurred upon the default of any debt of the issuer of the equity position. A swap dealer may not include correlation trading positions or securitization positions in its incremental risk measure.
(2) Requirements for incremental risk modeling. For purposes of calculating the incremental risk measure, the incremental risk model must:
(i) Measure incremental risk over a oneyear time horizon and at a onetail, 99.9 percent confidence level, either under the assumption of a constant level of risk, or under the assumption of constant positions.
(A) A constant level of risk assumption means that the swap dealer rebalances, or rolls over, the swap dealer's trading positions at the beginning of each liquidity horizon over the oneyear horizon in a manner that maintains the swap dealer's initial risk level. The swap dealer must determine the frequency of rebalancing in a manner consistent with the liquidity horizons of the positions in the portfolio. The liquidity horizon of a position or set of positions is the time required for a swap dealer to reduce its exposure to, or hedge all of its material risks of, the position(s) in a stressed market. The liquidity horizon for a position or set of positions may not be less than the shorter of three months or the contractual maturity of the position.
(B) A constant position assumption means that the swap dealer maintains the same set of positions throughout the oneyear horizon. If a swap dealer uses this assumption, it must do so consistently across all portfolios.
(C) A swap dealer's selection of a constant position or a constant risk assumption must be consistent between the swap dealer's incremental risk model and its comprehensive risk model described in paragraph (m) of this appendix, if applicable.
(D) A swap dealer's treatment of liquidity horizons must be consistent between the swap dealer's incremental risk model and its comprehensive risk model described in paragraph (m) of this appendix, if applicable.
(ii) Recognize the impact of correlations between default and migration events among obligors.
(iii) Reflect the effect of issuer and market concentrations, as well as concentrations that can arise within and across product classes during stressed conditions.
(iv) Reflect netting only of long and short positions that reference the same financial instrument.
(v) Reflect any material mismatch between a position and its hedge.
(vi) Recognize the effect that liquidity horizons have on dynamic hedging strategies. In such cases, a swap dealer must:
(A) Choose to model the rebalancing of the hedge consistently over the relevant set of trading positions;
(B) Demonstrate that including rebalancing results in a more appropriate risk measurement;
(C) Demonstrate that the market for the hedge is sufficiently liquid to permit rebalancing during periods of stress; and
(D) Capture in the incremental risk model any residual risks arising from such hedging strategies.
(vii) Reflect the nonlinear impact of options and other positions with material nonlinear behavior with respect to default and migration changes.
(viii) Maintain consistency with the swap dealer's internal risk management methodologies for identifying, measuring, and managing risk.
(m) Comprehensive Risk. A comprehensive risk model must meet the following minimum requirements in order to be approved:
(1) General requirement.
(i) Subject to the prior approval of the Commission or a registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member, a swap dealer may use the method in this paragraph to measure comprehensive risk, that is, all price risk, for one or more portfolios of correlation trading positions.
(ii) A swap dealer that measures the price risk of a portfolio of correlation trading positions using internal models must calculate at least weekly a comprehensive risk measure that captures all price risk according to the requirements of this paragraph (m). The comprehensive risk measure is either:
(A) The sum of:
(1) The swap dealer's modeled measure of all price risk determined according to the requirements in paragraph (m)(2) of this appendix; and
(2) A surcharge for the swap dealer's modeled correlation trading positions equal to the total specific risk addon for such positions as calculated under paragraph (k) of this appendix multiplied by 8.0 percent; or
(B) With approval of the Commission, or the registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member, and provided the swap dealer has met the requirements of this paragraph (m) for a period of at least one year and can demonstrate the effectiveness of the model through the results of ongoing model validation efforts including robust benchmarking, the greater of:
(1) The swap dealer's modeled measure of all price risk determined according to the requirements in paragraph (b) of this appendix; or
(2) The total specific risk addon that would apply to the swap dealer's modeled correlation trading positions as calculated under paragraph (k) of this appendix multiplied by 8.0 percent.
(2) Requirements for modeling all price risk. If a swap dealer uses an internal model to measure the price risk of a portfolio of correlation trading positions:
(i) The internal model must measure comprehensive risk over a oneyear time horizon at a onetail, 99.9 percent confidence level, either under the assumption of a constant level of risk, or under the assumption of constant positions.
(ii) The model must capture all material price risk, including but not limited to the following:
(A) The risks associated with the contractual structure of cash flows of the position, its issuer, and its underlying exposures;
(B) Credit spread risk, including nonlinear price risks;
(C) The volatility of implied correlations, including nonlinear price risks such as the crosseffect between spreads and correlations;
(D) Basis risk;
(E) Recovery rate volatility as it relates to the propensity for recovery rates to affect tranche prices; and
(F) To the extent the comprehensive risk measure incorporates the benefits of dynamic hedging, the static nature of the hedge over the liquidity horizon must be recognized. In such cases, a swap dealer must:
(1) Choose to model the rebalancing of the hedge consistently over the relevant set of trading positions;
(2) Demonstrate that including rebalancing results in a more appropriate risk measurement;
(3) Demonstrate that the market for the hedge is sufficiently liquid to permit rebalancing during periods of stress; and
(4) Capture in the comprehensive risk model any residual risks arising from such hedging strategies;
(iii) The swap dealer must use market data that are relevant in representing the risk profile of the swap dealer's correlation trading positions in order to ensure that the swap dealer fully captures the material risks of the correlation trading positions in its comprehensive risk measure in accordance with this appendix; and
(iv) The swap dealer must be able to demonstrate that its model is an appropriate representation of comprehensive risk in light of the historical price variation of its correlation trading positions.
(3) Requirements for stress testing.
(i) A swap dealer must at least weekly apply specific, supervisory stress scenarios to its portfolio of correlation trading positions that capture changes in:
(A) Default rates;
(B) Recovery rates;
(C) Credit spreads;
(D) Correlations of underlying exposures; and
(E) Correlations of a correlation trading position and its hedge.
(ii) Other requirements.
(A) A swap dealer must retain and make available to the Commission and to the registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member the results and all assumptions and parameters of the supervisory stress testing, including comparisons with the capital requirements generated by the swap dealer's comprehensive risk model.
(B) A swap dealer must report promptly to the Commission and to the registered futures association of which it is a member any instances where the stress tests indicate any material deficiencies in the comprehensive risk model.
(n) Securitization Exposures.
(1) To use the simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA) to determine the specific riskweighting factor for a securitization position, a swap dealer must have data that enables it to assign accurately the parameters described in paragraph (n)(2) of this appendix. Data used to assign the parameters described in paragraph (n)(2) of this appendix must be the most currently available data; if the contracts governing the underlying exposures of the securitization require payments on a monthly or quarterly basis, the data used to assign the parameters described in paragraph (n)(2) of this appendix must be no more than 91 calendar days old. A swap dealer that does not have the appropriate data to assign the parameters described in paragraph (n)(2) of this appendix must assign a specific riskweighting of 100 percent to the position.
(2) SSFA parameters. To calculate the specific riskweighting factor for a securitization position using the SSFA, a swap dealer must have accurate information on the five inputs to the SSFA calculation described in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) through (n)(2)(v) of this appendix.
(i) K_{G} is the weightedaverage (with unpaid principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the underlying exposures calculated for a swap dealer's credit risk. K_{G} is expressed as a decimal value between zero and one (that is, an average risk weight of 100 percent presents a value of K_{G} equal to 0.08).
(ii) Parameter W is expressed as a decimal value between zero and one. Parameter W is the ratio of the sum of the dollar amounts of any underlying exposures of the securitization that meet any of the criteria as set forth in paragraphs (n)(2)(ii)(A) through (F) of this appendix to the balance, measured in dollars, of underlying exposures:
(A) Ninety days or more past due;
(B) Subject to a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding;
(C) In the process of foreclosure;
(D) Held as real estate owned;
(E) Has contractually deferred payments for 90 days or more, other than principal or interest payments deferred on;
(1) Federallyguaranteed student loans, in accordance with the terms of those guarantee programs; or
(2) Consumer loans, including nonfederally guaranteed student loans, provided that such payments are deferred pursuant to provisions included in the contract at the time funds are disbursed that provide for period(s) of deferral that are not initiated based on changes in the creditworthiness of the borrower; or
(F) Is in default.
(iii) Parameter A is the attachment point for the position, which represents the threshold at which credit losses will first be allocated to the position. Except as provided in 12 CFR 217.210(b)(2)(vii)(D) for nth to default derivatives, parameter A equals the ratio of the current dollar amount of underlying exposures that are subordinated to the position of the swap dealer to the current dollar amount of underlying exposures. Any reserve account funded by the accumulated cash flows from the underlying exposures that is subordinated to the position that contains the swap dealer's securitization exposure may be included in the calculation of parameter A to the extent that cash is present in the account. Parameter A is expressed as a decimal value between zero and one.
(iv) Parameter D is the detachment point for the position, which represents the threshold at which credit losses of principal allocated to the position would result in a total loss of principal. Except as provided in 12 CFR 210(b)(2)(vii)(D) for nthtodefault credit derivatives, parameter D equals parameter A plus the ratio of the current dollar amount of the securitization positions that are pari passu with the position (that is, have equal seniority with respect to credit risk) to the current dollar amount of the underlying exposures. Parameter D is expressed as a decimal value between zero and one.
(v) A supervisory calibration parameter, p, is equal to 0.5 for securitization positions that are not resecuritization positions and equal to 1.5 for resecuritization positions.
(3) Mechanics of the SSFA. K_{G} and W are used to calculate K_{A}, the augmented value of K_{G}, which reflects the observed credit quality of the underlying exposures. K_{A} is defined in paragraph (n)(4) of this appendix. The values of parameters A and D, relative to K_{A} determine the specific riskweighting factor assigned to a securitization position, or portion of a position, as appropriate, is the larger of the specific riskweighting factor determined in accordance with this paragraph (n)(3), paragraph (n)(4) of this appendix, and a specific riskweighting factor of 1.6 percent.
(i) When the detachment point, parameter D, for a securitization position is less than or equal to K_{A}, the position must be assigned a specific riskweighting factor of 100 percent.
(ii) When the attachment point, parameter A, for a securitization position is greater than or equal to K_{A}, the swap dealer must calculate the specific riskweighting factor in accordance with paragraph (n)(4) of this appendix.
(iii) When A is less than K_{A} and D is greater than K_{A}, the specific riskweighting factor is a weightedaverage of 1.00 and K_{SSFA} calculated under paragraphs (n)(3)(iii)(A) and (3)(iii)(B) of this appendix. For the purpose of this calculation:
(A) The weight assigned to 1.00 equals
(iii) The specific riskweighting factor for the position (expressed as a percent) is equal to K_{SSFA} x 100.
(o) Additional conditions. As a condition for the swap dealer to use this Appendix A to calculate certain of its capital charges, the Commission, or registered futures association of which the swap dealer is a member, may impose additional conditions on the swap dealer, which may include, but are not limited to restricting the swap dealer's business on a productspecific, categoryspecific, or general basis; submitting to the Commission or the registered futures association a plan to increase the swap dealer's regulatory capital; filing more frequent reports with the Commission or the registered futures association; modifying the swap dealer's internal risk management control procedures; or computing the swap dealer's deductions for market and credit risk in accordance with §§ 23.102 as appropriate. If the Commission or registered futures association finds it is necessary or appropriate in the public interest, the Commission or registered futures association may impose additional conditions on the swap dealer, if:
(1) The swap dealer is required to provide notice to the Commission or the registered futures association that the swap dealer's regulatory capital is less than $100 million;
(2) The swap dealer fails to meet the reporting requirements set forth in § 23.105;
(3) Any event specified in § 23.105 occurs;
(4) There is a material deficiency in the internal risk management control system or in the mathematical models used to price securities or to calculate deductions for market and credit risk or allowances for market and credit risk, as applicable, of the swap dealer;
(5) The swap dealer fails to comply with this Appendix A; or
(6) The Commission finds that imposition of other conditions is necessary or appropriate in the public interest.
Cite this article: FindLaw.com  Code of Federal Regulations Title 17. Commodity and Securities Exchanges 17 CFR Pt. 23, Subpt. E, App. A APPENDIX A TO SUBPART E OF PART 23—APPLICATION FOR INTERNAL MODELS TO COMPUTE MARKET RISK EXPOSURE REQUIREMENT AND CREDIT RISK EXPOSURE REQUIREMENT  last updated October 02, 2022  https://codes.findlaw.com/cfr/title17commodityandsecuritiesexchanges/cfrpt1723subpteappa/
FindLaw Codes may not reflect the most recent version of the law in your jurisdiction. Please verify the status of the code you are researching with the state legislature or via Westlaw before relying on it for your legal needs.
A free source of state and federal court opinions, state laws, and the United States Code. For more information about the legal concepts addressed by these cases and statutes, visit FindLaw's Learn About the Law.
Get help with your legal needs
FindLaw’s Learn About the Law features thousands of informational articles to help you understand your options. And if you’re ready to hire an attorney, find one in your area who can help.
Search our directory by legal issue
Enter information in one or both fields (Required)