21 U.S.C. § 812 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 21. Food and Drugs § 812. Schedules of controlled substances




Establishment

There are established five schedules of controlled substances, to be known as schedules I, II, III, IV, and V.  Such schedules shall initially consist of the substances listed in this section.  The schedules established by this section shall be updated and republished on a semiannual basis during the two-year period beginning one year after October 27, 1970, and shall be updated and republished on an annual basis thereafter.

Placement on schedules;  findings required

Except where control is required by United States obligations under an international treaty, convention, or protocol, in effect on October 27, 1970, and except in the case of an immediate precursor, a drug or other substance may not be placed in any schedule unless the findings required for such schedule are made with respect to such drug or other substance.  The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

Schedule I--

 The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.

 The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

 There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.

Schedule II--

 The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.

 The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.

 Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

Schedule III--

 The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.

 The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

 Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

Schedule IV--

 The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.

 The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

 Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.

Schedule V--

 The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

 The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

 Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

Initial schedules of controlled substances

Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V shall, unless and until amended  [FN1] pursuant to section 811 of this title, consist of the following drugs or other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated:

Schedule I

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

 Acetylmethadol.

 Allylprodine.

 Alphacetylmathadol. [FN2]

 Alphameprodine.

 Alphamethadol.

 Benzethidine.

 Betacetylmethadol.

 Betameprodine.

 Betamethadol.

 Betaprodine.

 Clonitazene.

 Dextromoramide.

 Dextrorphan.

 Diampromide.

 Diethylthiambutene.

 Dimenoxadol.

 Dimepheptanol.

 Dimethylthiambutene.

 Dioxaphetyl butyrate.

 Dipipanone.

 Ethylmethylthiambutene.

 Etonitazene.

 Etoxeridine.

 Furethidine.

 Hydroxypethidine.

 Ketobemidone.

 Levomoramide.

 Levophenacylmorphan.

 Morpheridine.

 Noracymethadol.

 Norlevorphanol.

 Normethadone.

 Norpipanone.

 Phenadoxone.

 Phenampromide.

 Phenomorphan.

 Phenoperidine.

 Piritramide.

 Proheptazine.

 Properidine.

 Racemoramide.

 Trimeperidine.

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opium derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

 Acetorphine.

 Acetyldihydrocodeine.

 Benzylmorphine.

 Codeine methylbromide.

 Codeine-N-Oxide.

 Cyprenorphine.

 Desomorphine.

 Dihydromorphine.

 Etorphine.

 Heroin.

 Hydromorphinol.

 Methyldesorphine.

 Methylhydromorphine.

 Morphine methylbromide.

 Morphine methylsulfonate.

 Morphine-N-Oxide.

 Myrophine.

 Nicocodeine.

 Nicomorphine.

 Normorphine.

 Pholcodine.

 Thebacon.

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, or which contains any of their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.

 5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.

 3,4,5-trimethoxy amphetamine.

 Bufotenine.

 Diethyltryptamine.

 Dimethyltryptamine.

 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.

 Ibogaine.

 Lysergic acid diethylamide.

 Marihuana.

 Mescaline.

 Peyote.

 N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

 N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

 Psilocybin.

 Psilocyn.

 Tetrahydrocannabinols.

 4-methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone).

 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).

 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-E).

 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-D).

 2-(4-Chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-C).

 2-(4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-I).

 2-[4-(Ethylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-2).

 2-[4-(Isopropylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-4).

 2-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-H).

 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitro-phenyl)ethanamine (2C-N).

 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-P).

 Unless specifically exempted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of cannabimimetic agents, or which contains their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation.

 In paragraph (1):

 The term “cannabimimetic agents” means any substance that is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) agonist as demonstrated by binding studies and functional assays within any of the following structural classes:

 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by alkyl or alkenyl, whether or not substituted on the cyclohexyl ring to any extent.

 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 3-(1-naphthylmethane)indole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl or naphthyl ring to any extent.

 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl ring to any extent.

 1-(1-naphthylmethylene)indene by substitution of the 3-position of the indene ring, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent.

 3-phenylacetylindole or 3-benzoylindole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the phenyl ring to any extent.

 Such term includes--

 5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (CP-47,497);

 5-(1,1-dimethyloctyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (cannabicyclohexanol or CP-47,497 C8-homolog);

 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018 and AM678);

 1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-073);

 1-hexyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-019);

 1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-200);

 1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (JWH-250);

 1-pentyl-3-[1-(4-methoxynaphthoyl)]indole (JWH-081);

 1-pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-122);

 1-pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-398);

 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (AM2201);

 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (AM694);

 1-pentyl-3-[(4-methoxy)-benzoyl]indole (SR-19 and RCS-4);

 1-cyclohexylethyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (SR-18 and RCS-8);  and

 1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (JWH-203).

Schedule II

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following substances whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

 Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate.

 Any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in clause (1), except that these substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

 Opium poppy and poppy straw.

 coca  [FN3] leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;  cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;  ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers;  or any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in this paragraph.

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

 Alphaprodine.

 Anileridine.

 Bezitramide.

 Dihydrocodeine.

 Diphenoxylate.

 Fentanyl.

 Isomethadone.

 Levomethorphan.

 Levorphanol.

 Metazocine.

 Methadone.

 Methadone-Intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4, 4-diphenyl butane.

 Moramide-Intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid.

 Pethidine.

 Pethidine-Intermediate-A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine.

 Pethidine-Intermediate-B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate.

 Pethidine-Intermediate-C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid.

 Phenazocine.

 Piminodine.

 Racemethorphan.

 Racemorphan.

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any injectable liquid which contains any quantity of methamphetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.

Schedule III

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

 Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers.

 Phenmetrazine and its salts.

 Any substance (except an injectable liquid) which contains any quantity of methamphetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.

 Methylphenidate.

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system:

 Any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid, or any salt of a derivative of barbituric acid.

 Chorhexadol.

 Glutethimide.

 Lysergic acid.

 Lysergic acid amide.

 Methyprylon.

 Phencyclidine.

 Sulfondiethylmethane.

 Sulfonethylmethane.

 Sulfonmethane.

 Nalorphine.

 Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts thereof:

 Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.

 Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, non-narcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

 Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with a fourfold or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.

 Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

 Not more than 1.8 grams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

 Not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

 Not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, or not more than 25 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

 Not more than 50 milligrams of morphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

 Anabolic steroids.

Schedule IV

 Barbital.

 Chloral betaine.

 Chloral hydrate.

 Ethchlorvynol.

 Ethinamate.

 Methohexital.

 Meprobamate.

 Methylphenobarbital.

 Paraldehyde.

 Petrichloral.

 Phenobarbital.

Schedule V

Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following limited quantities of narcotic drugs, which shall include one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone:

 Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

 Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

 Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

 Not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

 Not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

[FN1]

 Revised schedules are published in the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1308 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

[FN2]

 So in original. Probably should be “Alphacetylmethadol”.

[FN3]

 So in original.  Probably should be capitalized.





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