(a) Conditions and considerations
(1)(A) In providing assistance under this section, the Director shall, to the extent of available appropriations, (i) make available sufficient resources for employment training and placement in order to achieve economic self-sufficiency among refugees as quickly as possible, (ii) provide refugees with the opportunity to acquire sufficient English language training to enable them to become effectively resettled as quickly as possible, (iii) insure that cash assistance is made available to refugees in such a manner as not to discourage their economic self-sufficiency, in accordance with subsection (e)(2) of this section, and (iv) insure that women have the same opportunities as men to participate in training and instruction.
(B) It is the intent of Congress that in providing refugee assistance under this section--
(i) employable refugees should be placed on jobs as soon as possible after their arrival in the United States;
(ii) social service funds should be focused on employment-related services, English-as-a-second-language training (in nonwork hours where possible), and case-management services; and
(iii) local voluntary agency activities should be conducted in close cooperation and advance consultation with State and local governments.
(2)(A) The Director and the Federal agency administering subsection (b)(1) of this section shall consult regularly (not less often than quarterly) with State and local governments and private nonprofit voluntary agencies concerning the sponsorship process and the intended distribution of refugees among the States and localities before their placement in those States and localities.
(B) The Director shall develop and implement, in consultation with representatives of voluntary agencies and State and local governments, policies and strategies for the placement and resettlement of refugees within the United States.
(C) Such policies and strategies, to the extent practicable and except under such unusual circumstances as the Director may recognize, shall--
(i) insure that a refugee is not initially placed or resettled in an area highly impacted (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Director after consultation with such agencies and governments) by the presence of refugees or comparable populations unless the refugee has a spouse, parent, sibling, son, or daughter residing in that area,
(ii) provide for a mechanism whereby representatives of local affiliates of voluntary agencies regularly (not less often than quarterly) meet with representatives of State and local governments to plan and coordinate in advance of their arrival the appropriate placement of refugees among the various States and localities, and
(iii) take into account--
(I) the proportion of refugees and comparable entrants in the population in the area,
(II) the availability of employment opportunities, affordable housing, and public and private resources (including educational, health care, and mental health services) for refugees in the area,
(III) the likelihood of refugees placed in the area becoming self-sufficient and free from long-term dependence on public assistance, and
(IV) the secondary migration of refugees to and from the area that is likely to occur.
(D) With respect to the location of placement of refugees within a State, the Federal agency administering subsection (b)(1) of this section shall, consistent with such policies and strategies and to the maximum extent possible, take into account recommendations of the State.
(3) In the provision of domestic assistance under this section, the Director shall make a periodic assessment, based on refugee population and other relevant factors, of the relative needs of refugees for assistance and services under this subchapter and the resources available to meet such needs. The Director shall compile and maintain data on secondary migration of refugees within the United States and, by State of residence and nationality, on the proportion of refugees receiving cash or medical assistance described in subsection (e) of this section. In allocating resources, the Director shall avoid duplication of services and provide for maximum coordination between agencies providing related services.
(4)(A) No grant or contract may be awarded under this section unless an appropriate proposal and application (including a description of the agency's ability to perform the services specified in the proposal) are submitted to, and approved by, the appropriate administering official. Grants and contracts under this section shall be made to those agencies which the appropriate administering official determines can best perform the services. Payments may be made for activities authorized under this subchapter in advance or by way of reimbursement. In carrying out this section, the Director, the Secretary of State, and any such other appropriate administering official are authorized--
(i) to make loans, and
(ii) to accept and use money, funds, property, and services of any kind made available by gift, devise, bequest, grant, or otherwise for the purpose of carrying out this section.
(B) No funds may be made available under this subchapter (other than under subsection (b)(1) of this section) to States or political subdivisions in the form of block grants, per capita grants, or similar consolidated grants or contracts. Such funds shall be made available under separate grants or contracts--
(i) for medical screening and initial medical treatment under subsection (b)(5) of this section,
(ii) for services for refugees under subsection (c)(1) of this section,
(iii) for targeted assistance project grants under subsection (c)(2) of this section, and
(iv) for assistance for refugee children under subsection (d)(2) of this section.
(C) The Director may not delegate to a State or political subdivision his authority to review or approve grants or contracts under this subchapter or the terms under which such grants or contracts are made.
(5) Assistance and services funded under this section shall be provided to refugees without regard to race, religion, nationality, sex, or political opinion.
(6) As a condition for receiving assistance under this section, a State must--
(A) submit to the Director a plan which provides--
(i) a description of how the State intends to encourage effective refugee resettlement and to promote economic self-sufficiency as quickly as possible,
(ii) a description of how the State will insure that language training and employment services are made available to refugees receiving cash assistance,
(iii) for the designation of an individual, employed by the State, who will be responsible for insuring coordination of public and private resources in refugee resettlement,
(iv) for the care and supervision of and legal responsibility for unaccompanied refugee children in the State, and
(v) for the identification of refugees who at the time of resettlement in the State are determined to have medical conditions requiring, or medical histories indicating a need for, treatment or observation and such monitoring of such treatment or observation as may be necessary;
(B) meet standards, goals, and priorities, developed by the Director, which assure the effective resettlement of refugees and which promote their economic self-sufficiency as quickly as possible and the efficient provision of services; and
(C) submit to the Director, within a reasonable period of time after the end of each fiscal year, a report on the uses of funds provided under this subchapter which the State is responsible for administering.
(7) The Secretary, together with the Secretary of State with respect to assistance provided by the Secretary of State under subsection (b) of this section, shall develop a system of monitoring the assistance provided under this section. This system shall include--
(A) evaluations of the effectiveness of the programs funded under this section and the performance of States, grantees, and contractors;
(B) financial auditing and other appropriate monitoring to detect any fraud, abuse, or mismanagement in the operation of such programs; and
(C) data collection on the services provided and the results achieved.
(8) The Attorney General shall provide the Director with information supplied by refugees in conjunction with their applications to the Attorney General for adjustment of status, and the Director shall compile, summarize, and evaluate such information.
(9) The Secretary, the Secretary of Education, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of State may issue such regulations as each deems appropriate to carry out this subchapter.
(10) For purposes of this subchapter, the term “refugee” includes any alien described in section 1157(c)(2) of this title.
(b) Program of initial resettlement
(i) fiscal years 1980 and 1981, the Secretary of State is authorized, and
(ii) fiscal year 1982 and succeeding fiscal years, the Director (except as provided in subparagraph (B)) is authorized,
to make grants to, and contracts with, public or private nonprofit agencies for initial resettlement (including initial reception and placement with sponsors) of refugees in the United States. Grants to, or contracts with, private nonprofit voluntary agencies under this paragraph shall be made consistent with the objectives of this subchapter, taking into account the different resettlement approaches and practices of such agencies. Resettlement assistance under this paragraph shall be provided in coordination with the Director's provision of other assistance under this subchapter. Funds provided to agencies under such grants and contracts may only be obligated or expended during the fiscal year in which they are provided (or the subsequent fiscal year or such subsequent fiscal period as the Federal contracting agency may approve) to carry out the purposes of this subsection.
(B) If the President determines that the Director should not administer the program under this paragraph, the authority of the Director under the first sentence of subparagraph (A) shall be exercised by such officer as the President shall from time to time specify.
(2) The Director is authorized to develop programs for such orientation, instruction in English, and job training for refugees, and such other education and training of refugees, as facilitates their resettlement in the United States. The Director is authorized to implement such programs, in accordance with the provisions of this section, with respect to refugees in the United States. The Secretary of State is authorized to implement such programs with respect to refugees awaiting entry into the United States.
(3) The Secretary is authorized to make arrangements (including cooperative arrangements with other Federal agencies) for the temporary care of refugees in the United States in emergency circumstances, including the establishment of processing centers, if necessary, without regard to such provisions of law (other than the Renegotiation Act of 1951 [ 50 App. U.S.C.A. § 1211 et seq. ] and section 1524(b) of this title) regulating the making, performance, amendment, or modification of contracts and the expenditure of funds of the United States Government as the Secretary may specify.
(4) The Secretary shall--
(A) assure that an adequate number of trained staff are available at the location at which the refugees enter the United States to assure that all necessary medical records are available and in proper order;
(B) provide for the identification of refugees who have been determined to have medical conditions affecting the public health and requiring treatment;
(C) assure that State or local health officials at the resettlement destination within the United States of each refugee are promptly notified of the refugee's arrival and provided with all applicable medical records; and
(D) provide for such monitoring of refugees identified under subparagraph (B) as will insure that they receive appropriate and timely treatment.
The Secretary shall develop and implement methods for monitoring and assessing the quality of medical screening and related health services provided to refugees awaiting resettlement in the United States.
(5) The Director is authorized to make grants to, and enter into contracts with, State and local health agencies for payments to meet their costs of providing medical screening and initial medical treatment to refugees.
(6) The Comptroller General shall directly conduct an annual financial audit of funds expended under each grant or contract made under paragraph (1) for fiscal year 1986 and for fiscal year 1987.
(7) Each grant or contract with an agency under paragraph (1) shall require the agency to do the following:
(A) To provide quarterly performance and financial status reports to the Federal agency administering paragraph (1).
(B)(i) To provide, directly or through its local affiliate, notice to the appropriate county or other local welfare office at the time that the agency becomes aware that a refugee is offered employment and to provide notice to the refugee that such notice has been provided, and
(ii) upon request of such a welfare office to which a refugee has applied for cash assistance, to furnish that office with documentation respecting any cash or other resources provided directly by the agency to the refugee under this subsection.
(C) To assure that refugees, known to the agency as having been identified pursuant to paragraph (4)(B) as having medical conditions affecting the public health and requiring treatment, report to the appropriate county or other health agency upon their resettlement in an area.
(D) To fulfill its responsibility to provide for the basic needs (including food, clothing, shelter, and transportation for job interviews and training) of each refugee resettled and to develop and implement a resettlement plan including the early employment of each refugee resettled and to monitor the implementation of such plan.
(E) To transmit to the Federal agency administering paragraph (1) an annual report describing the following:
(i) The number of refugees placed (by county of placement) and the expenditures made in the year under the grant or contract, including the proportion of such expenditures used for administrative purposes and for provision of services.
(ii) The proportion of refugees placed by the agency in the previous year who are receiving cash or medical assistance described in subsection (e) of this section.
(iii) The efforts made by the agency to monitor placement of the refugees and the activities of local affiliates of the agency.
(iv) The extent to which the agency has coordinated its activities with local social service providers in a manner which avoids duplication of activities and has provided notices to local welfare offices and the reporting of medical conditions of certain aliens to local health departments in accordance with subparagraphs (B)(i) and (C).
(v) Such other information as the agency administering paragraph (1) deems to be appropriate in monitoring the effectiveness of agencies in carrying out their functions under such grants and contracts.
The agency administering paragraph (1) shall promptly forward a copy of each annual report transmitted under subparagraph (E) to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate.
(8) The Federal agency administering paragraph (1) shall establish criteria for the performance of agencies under grants and contracts under that paragraph, and shall include criteria relating to an agency's--
(A) efforts to reduce welfare dependency among refugees resettled by that agency,
(B) collection of travel loans made to refugees resettled by that agency for travel to the United States,
(C) arranging for effective local sponsorship and other nonpublic assistance for refugees resettled by that agency,
(D) cooperation with refugee mutual assistance associations, local social service providers, health agencies, and welfare offices,
(E) compliance with the guidelines established by the Director for the placement and resettlement of refugees within the United States, and
(F) compliance with other requirements contained in the grant or contract, including the reporting and other requirements under subsection (b)(7) of this section.
The Federal administering agency shall use the criteria in the process of awarding or renewing grants and contracts under paragraph (1).
(c) Project grants and contracts for services for refugees
(1)(A) The Director is authorized to make grants to, and enter into contracts with, public or private nonprofit agencies for projects specifically designed--
(i) to assist refugees in obtaining the skills which are necessary for economic self-sufficiency, including projects for job training, employment services, day care, professional refresher training, and other recertification services;
(ii) to provide training in English where necessary (regardless of whether the refugees are employed or receiving cash or other assistance); and
(iii) to provide where specific needs have been shown and recognized by the Director, health (including mental health) services, social services, educational and other services.
(B) The funds available for a fiscal year for grants and contracts under subparagraph (A) shall be allocated among the States based on the total number of refugees (including children and adults) who arrived in the United States not more than 36 months before the beginning of such fiscal year and who are actually residing in each State (taking into account secondary migration) as of the beginning of the fiscal year.
(C) Any limitation which the Director establishes on the proportion of funds allocated to a State under this paragraph that the State may use for services other than those described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) of this section shall not apply if the Director receives a plan (established by or in consultation with local governments) and determines that the plan provides for the maximum appropriate provision of employment-related services for, and the maximum placement of, employable refugees consistent with performance standards established under section 106 of the Job Training Partnership Act.
(2)(A) The Director is authorized to make grants to States for assistance to counties and similar areas in the States where, because of factors such as unusually large refugee populations (including secondary migration), high refugee concentrations, and high use of public assistance by refugees, there exists and can be demonstrated a specific need for supplementation of available resources for services to refugees.
(B) Grants shall be made available under this paragraph--
(i) primarily for the purpose of facilitating refugee employment and achievement of self-sufficiency,
(ii) in a manner that does not supplant other refugee program funds and that assures that not less than 95 percent of the amount of the grant award is made available to the county or other local entity.
(d) Assistance for refugee children
(1) The Secretary of Education is authorized to make grants, and enter into contracts, for payments for projects to provide special educational services (including English language training) to refugee children in elementary and secondary schools where a demonstrated need has been shown.
(2)(A) The Director is authorized to provide assistance, reimbursement to States, and grants to and contracts with public and private nonprofit agencies, for the provision of child welfare services, including foster care maintenance payments and services and health care, furnished to any refugee child (except as provided in subparagraph (B)) during the thirty-six month period beginning with the first month in which such refugee child is in the United States.
(B)(i) In the case of a refugee child who is unaccompanied by a parent or other close adult relative (as defined by the Director), the services described in subparagraph (A) may be furnished until the month after the child attains eighteen years of age (or such higher age as the State's child welfare services plan under part B of title IV of the Social Security Act [ 42 U.S.C.A. § 620 et seq. ] prescribes for the availability of such services to any other child in that State).
(ii) The Director shall attempt to arrange for the placement under the laws of the States of such unaccompanied refugee children, who have been accepted for admission to the United States, before (or as soon as possible after) their arrival in the United States. During any interim period while such a child is in the United States or in transit to the United States but before the child is so placed, the Director shall assume legal responsibility (including financial responsibility) for the child, if necessary, and is authorized to make necessary decisions to provide for the child's immediate care.
(iii) In carrying out the Director's responsibilities under clause (ii), the Director is authorized to enter into contracts with appropriate public or private nonprofit agencies under such conditions as the Director determines to be appropriate.
(iv) The Director shall prepare and maintain a list of (I) all such unaccompanied children who have entered the United States after April 1, 1975, (II) the names and last known residences of their parents (if living) at the time of arrival, and (III) the children's location, status, and progress.
(e) Cash assistance and medical assistance to refugees
(1) The Director is authorized to provide assistance, reimbursement to States, and grants to, and contracts with, public or private nonprofit agencies for 100 per centum of the cash assistance and medical assistance provided to any refugee during the thirty-six month period beginning with the first month in which such refugee has entered the United States and for the identifiable and reasonable administrative costs of providing this assistance.
(2)(A) Cash assistance provided under this subsection to an employable refugee is conditioned, except for good cause shown--
(i) on the refugee's registration with an appropriate agency providing employment services described in subsection (c)(1)(A)(i) of this section, or, if there is no such agency available, with an appropriate State or local employment service;
(ii) on the refugee's participation in any available and appropriate social service or targeted assistance program (funded under subsection (c) of this section) providing job or language training in the area in which the refugee resides; and
(iii) on the refugee's acceptance of appropriate offers of employment.
(B) Cash assistance shall not be made available to refugees who are full-time students in institutions of higher education (as defined by the Director after consultation with the Secretary of Education).
(C) In the case of a refugee who--
(i) refuses an offer of employment which has been determined to be appropriate either by the agency responsible for the initial resettlement of the refugee under subsection (b) of this section or by the appropriate State or local employment service,
(ii) refuses to go to a job interview which has been arranged through such agency or service, or
(iii) refuses to participate in a social service or targeted assistance program referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) which such agency or service determines to be available and appropriate,
cash assistance to the refugee shall be terminated (after opportunity for an administrative hearing) for a period of three months (for the first such refusal) or for a period of six months (for any subsequent refusal).
(3) The Director shall develop plans to provide English training and other appropriate services and training to refugees receiving cash assistance.
(4) If a refugee is eligible for aid or assistance under a State program funded under part A of title IV or under title XIX of the Social Security Act [ 42 U.S.C.A §§ 601 et seq., 1396 et seq. ], or for supplemental security income benefits (including State supplementary payments) under the program established under title XVI of that Act [ 42 U.S.C.A. § 1381 et seq. ], funds authorized under this subsection shall only be used for the non-Federal share of such aid or assistance, or for such supplementary payments, with respect to cash and medical assistance provided with respect to such refugee under this paragraph.
(5) The Director is authorized to allow for the provision of medical assistance under paragraph (1) to any refugee, during the one-year period after entry, who does not qualify for assistance under a State plan approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act [ 42 U.S.C.A. § 1396 et seq. ] on account of any resources or income requirement of such plan, but only if the Director determines that--
(A) this will (i) encourage economic self-sufficiency, or (ii) avoid a significant burden on State and local governments; and
(B) the refugee meets such alternative financial resources and income requirements as the Director shall establish.
(6) As a condition for receiving assistance, reimbursement, or a contract under this subsection and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a State or agency must provide assurances that whenever a refugee applies for cash or medical assistance for which assistance or reimbursement is provided under this subsection, the State or agency must notify promptly the agency (or local affiliate) which provided for the initial resettlement of the refugee under subsection (b) of this section of the fact that the refugee has so applied.
(7)(A) The Secretary shall develop and implement alternative projects for refugees who have been in the United States less than thirty-six months, under which refugees are provided interim support, medical services, support services, and case management, as needed, in a manner that encourages self-sufficiency, reduces welfare dependency, and fosters greater coordination among the resettlement agencies and service providers. The Secretary may permit alternative projects to cover specific groups of refugees who have been in the United States 36 months or longer if the Secretary determines that refugees in the group have been significantly and disproportionately dependent on welfare and need the services provided under the project in order to become self-sufficient and that their coverage under the projects would be cost-effective.
(B) Refugees covered under such alternative projects shall be precluded from receiving cash or medical assistance under any other paragraph of this subsection or under title XIX or part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [ 42 U.S.C.A. §§ 1396 et seq., 601 et seq.].
(C) The Secretary shall report to Congress not later than October 31, 1985, on the results of these projects and on any recommendations respecting changes in the refugee assistance program under this section to take into account such results.
(D) To the extent that the use of such funds is consistent with the purposes of such provisions, funds appropriated under section 1524(a) of this title, part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [ 42 U.S.C.A. § 601 et seq. ], or title XIX of such Act [ 42 U.S.C.A. § 1396 et seq. ], may be used for the purpose of implementing and evaluating alternative projects under this paragraph.
(8) In its provision of assistance to refugees, a State or political subdivision shall consider the recommendations of, and assistance provided by, agencies with grants or contracts under subsection (b)(1) of this section.
(f) Assistance to States and counties for incarceration of certain Cuban nationals; priority for removal and return to Cuba
(1) The Attorney General shall pay compensation to States and to counties for costs incurred by the States and counties to confine in prisons, during the fiscal year for which such payment is made, nationals of Cuba who--
(A) were paroled into the United States in 1980 by the Attorney General,
(B) after such parole committed any violation of State or county law for which a term of imprisonment was imposed, and
(C) at the time of such parole and such violation were not aliens lawfully admitted to the United States--
(i) for permanent residence, or
(ii) under the terms of an immigrant or a nonimmigrant visa issued,
under this chapter.
(2) For a State or county to be eligible to receive compensation under this subsection, the chief executive officer of the State or county shall submit to the Attorney General, in accordance with rules to be issued by the Attorney General, an application containing--
(A) the number and names of the Cuban nationals with respect to whom the State or county is entitled to such compensation, and
(B) such other information as the Attorney General may require.
(3) For a fiscal year the Attorney General shall pay the costs described in paragraph (1) to each State and county determined by the Attorney General to be eligible under paragraph (2); except that if the amounts appropriated for the fiscal year to carry out this subsection are insufficient to cover all such payments, each of such payments shall be ratably reduced so that the total of such payments equals the amounts so appropriated.
(4) The authority of the Attorney General to pay compensation under this subsection shall be effective for any fiscal year only to the extent and in such amounts as may be provided in advance in appropriation Acts.
(5) It shall be the policy of the United States Government that the President, in consultation with the Attorney General and all other appropriate Federal officials and all appropriate State and county officials referred to in paragraph (2), shall place top priority on seeking the expeditious removal from this country and the return to Cuba of Cuban nationals described in paragraph (1) by any reasonable and responsible means, and to this end the Attorney General may use the funds authorized to carry out this subsection to conduct such policy.
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