8 U.S.C. § 1228 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 8. Aliens and Nationality § 1228. Expedited removal of aliens convicted of committing aggravated felonies

(a) Removal of criminal aliens

(1) In general

The Attorney General shall provide for the availability of special removal proceedings at certain Federal, State, and local correctional facilities for aliens convicted of any criminal offense covered in section 1227(a)(2)(A)(iii), (B), (C), or (D) of this title, or any offense covered by section 1227(a)(2)(A)(ii) of this title for which both predicate offenses are, without regard to the date of their commission, otherwise covered by section 1227(a)(2)(A)(i) of this title.  Such proceedings shall be conducted in conformity with section 1229a of this title (except as otherwise provided in this section), and in a manner which eliminates the need for additional detention at any processing center of the Service and in a manner which assures expeditious removal following the end of the alien's incarceration for the underlying sentence.  Nothing in this section shall be construed to create any substantive or procedural right or benefit that is legally enforceable by any party against the United States or its agencies or officers or any other person.

(2) Implementation

With respect to an alien convicted of an aggravated felony who is taken into custody by the Attorney General pursuant to section 1226(c) of this title, the Attorney General shall, to the maximum extent practicable, detain any such felon at a facility at which other such aliens are detained.  In the selection of such facility, the Attorney General shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that the alien's access to counsel and right to counsel under section 1362 of this title are not impaired.

(3) Expedited proceedings

(A)  Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Attorney General shall provide for the initiation and, to the extent possible, the completion of removal proceedings, and any administrative appeals thereof, in the case of any alien convicted of an aggravated felony before the alien's release from incarceration for the underlying aggravated felony.

(B)  Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the Attorney General to effect the removal of any alien sentenced to actual incarceration, before release from the penitentiary or correctional institution where such alien is confined.

(4) Review

(A)  The Attorney General shall review and evaluate removal proceedings conducted under this section.

(B)  The Comptroller General shall monitor, review, and evaluate removal proceedings conducted under this section.  Within 18 months after the effective date of this section, the Comptroller General shall submit a report to such Committees concerning the extent to which removal proceedings conducted under this section may adversely affect the ability of such aliens to contest removal effectively.

(b) Removal of aliens who are not permanent residents

(1)  The Attorney General may, in the case of an alien described in paragraph (2), determine the deportability of such alien under section 1227(a)(2)(A)(iii) of this title (relating to conviction of an aggravated felony) and issue an order of removal pursuant to the procedures set forth in this subsection or section 1229a of this title.

(2)  An alien is described in this paragraph if the alien--

(A)  was not lawfully admitted for permanent residence at the time at which proceedings under this section commenced;  or

(B)  had permanent resident status on a conditional basis (as described in section 1186a of this title) at the time that proceedings under this section commenced.

(3)  The Attorney General may not execute any order described in paragraph (1) until 14 calendar days have passed from the date that such order was issued, unless waived by the alien, in order that the alien has an opportunity to apply for judicial review under section 1252 of this title.

(4)  Proceedings before the Attorney General under this subsection shall be in accordance with such regulations as the Attorney General shall prescribe.  The Attorney General shall provide that--

(A)  the alien is given reasonable notice of the charges and of the opportunity described in subparagraph (C);

(B)  the alien shall have the privilege of being represented (at no expense to the government) by such counsel, authorized to practice in such proceedings, as the alien shall choose;

(C)  the alien has a reasonable opportunity to inspect the evidence and rebut the charges;

(D)  a determination is made for the record that the individual upon whom the notice for the proceeding under this section is served (either in person or by mail) is, in fact, the alien named in such notice;

(E)  a record is maintained for judicial review;  and

(F)  the final order of removal is not adjudicated by the same person who issues the charges.

(5)  No alien described in this section shall be eligible for any relief from removal that the Attorney General may grant in the Attorney General's discretion.

(c)   Presumption of deportability

An alien convicted of an aggravated felony shall be conclusively presumed to be deportable from the United States.

(c)   Judicial removal

(1) Authority

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a United States district court shall have jurisdiction to enter a judicial order of removal at the time of sentencing against an alien who is deportable, if such an order has been requested by the United States Attorney with the concurrence of the Commissioner and if the court chooses to exercise such jurisdiction.

(2) Procedure

(A)  The United States Attorney shall file with the United States district court, and serve upon the defendant and the Service, prior to commencement of the trial or entry of a guilty plea a notice of intent to request judicial removal.

(B)  Notwithstanding section 1252b  2 of this title, the United States Attorney, with the concurrence of the Commissioner, shall file at least 30 days prior to the date set for sentencing a charge containing factual allegations regarding the alienage of the defendant and identifying the crime or crimes which make the defendant deportable under section 1227(a)(2)(A) of this title.

(C)  If the court determines that the defendant has presented substantial evidence to establish prima facie eligibility for relief from removal under this chapter, the Commissioner shall provide the court with a recommendation and report regarding the alien's eligibility for relief.  The court shall either grant or deny the relief sought.

(D)(i)  The alien shall have a reasonable opportunity to examine the evidence against him or her, to present evidence on his or her own behalf, and to cross-examine witnesses presented by the Government.

(ii)  The court, for the purposes of determining whether to enter an order described in paragraph (1), shall only consider evidence that would be admissible in proceedings conducted pursuant to section 1229a of this title.

(iii)  Nothing in this subsection shall limit the information a court of the United States may receive or consider for the purposes of imposing an appropriate sentence.

(iv)  The court may order the alien removed if the Attorney General demonstrates that the alien is deportable under this chapter.

(3) Notice, appeal, and execution of judicial order of removal

(A)(i)  A judicial order of removal or denial of such order may be appealed by either party to the court of appeals for the circuit in which the district court is located.

(ii)  Except as provided in clause (iii), such appeal shall be considered consistent with the requirements described in section 1252 of this title.

(iii)  Upon execution by the defendant of a valid waiver of the right to appeal the conviction on which the order of removal is based, the expiration of the period described in section 1252(b)(1) of this title, or the final dismissal of an appeal from such conviction, the order of removal shall become final and shall be executed at the end of the prison term in accordance with the terms of the order.  If the conviction is reversed on direct appeal, the order entered pursuant to this section shall be void.

(B)  As soon as is practicable after entry of a judicial order of removal, the Commissioner shall provide the defendant with written notice of the order of removal, which shall designate the defendant's country of choice for removal and any alternate country pursuant to section 1253(a) of this title.

(4) Denial of judicial order

Denial of a request for a judicial order of removal shall not preclude the Attorney General from initiating removal proceedings pursuant to section 1229a of this title upon the same ground of deportability or upon any other ground of deportability provided under section 1227(a) of this title.

(5) Stipulated judicial order of removal

The United States Attorney, with the concurrence of the Commissioner, may, pursuant to Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 11 , enter into a plea agreement which calls for the alien, who is deportable under this chapter, to waive the right to notice and a hearing under this section, and stipulate to the entry of a judicial order of removal from the United States as a condition of the plea agreement or as a condition of probation or supervised release, or both.  The United States district court, in both felony and misdemeanor cases, and a United States magistrate judge in misdemeanor cases, may accept such a stipulation and shall have jurisdiction to enter a judicial order of removal pursuant to the terms of such stipulation.

1 So in original.  Two subsecs. (c) have been enacted.
2 So in original.  Section 1252b of this title was repealed by Pub.L. 104-208, Div. C, Title III, § 308(b)(6), Sept. 30 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-615.

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