A district court of the United States shall have jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain any person from violating, any order or regulation made or issued by the Secretary under this subchapter.
(b) Referral to Attorney General
A civil action authorized to be brought under this section shall be referred to the Attorney General for appropriate action, except that the Secretary is not required to refer to the Attorney General a violation of this subchapter, or any order or regulation issued under this subchapter, if the Secretary believes that the administration and enforcement of this subchapter would be adequately served by administrative action under subsection (c) of this section or suitable written notice or warning to the person committing the violation.
(c) Civil penalties and orders
(1) Civil penalties
Any person who willfully violates any provision of any order or regulation issued by the Secretary under this subchapter, or who fails or refuses to pay, collect, or remit any assessment or fee duly required of the person under the order or regulation, may be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary of not less than $500 nor more than $5,000 for each such violation. Each violation shall be a separate offense.
(2) Cease-and-desist orders
In addition to or in lieu of the civil penalty, the Secretary may issue an order requiring the person to cease and desist from continuing the violation.
(3) Notice and hearing
No order assessing a civil penalty or cease-and-desist order may be issued by the Secretary under this subsection unless the Secretary gives the person against whom the order is issued notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record before the Secretary with respect to the violation.
The order of the Secretary assessing a penalty or imposing a cease-and-desist order shall be final and conclusive unless the person against whom the order is issued files an appeal of the order in the appropriate district court of the United States, in accordance with subsection (d) of this section.
(d) Review by United States district court
(1) Commencement of action
Any person against whom a violation is found and a civil penalty assessed or cease-and-desist order issued under subsection (c) of this section may obtain review of the penalty or cease-and-desist order in the district court of the United States for the district in which the person resides or carries on business, or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, by--
(A) filing a notice of appeal in the court not later than 30 days after the date on which the penalty is assessed or cease-and-desist order issued; and
(B) simultaneously sending a copy of the notice by certified mail to the Secretary.
The Secretary shall promptly file in the court a certified copy of the record on which the Secretary found that the person committed the violation.
(3) Standard of review
A finding of the Secretary shall be set aside only if the finding is found to be unsupported by substantial evidence.
(e) Failure to obey cease-and-desist orders
Any person who fails to obey a cease-and-desist order issued by the Secretary after the cease-and-desist order has become final and unappealable, or after the appropriate United States district court has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary, shall be subject to a civil penalty assessed by the Secretary, after opportunity for a hearing and for judicial review under the procedures specified in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, of not more than $500 for each offense. Each day during which the failure continues shall be considered a separate violation of the cease-and-desist order.
(f) Failure to pay penalties
If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after the assessment has become a final and unappealable order issued by the Secretary, or after the appropriate United States district court has entered final judgment in favor of the Secretary, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General for recovery of the amount assessed in the district court of the United States for any district in which the person resides or carries on business. In an action for recovery, the validity and appropriateness of the final order imposing the civil penalty shall not be subject to review.
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