(a) Economic regulation. --In carrying out subpart II of this part and those provisions of subpart IV applicable in carrying out subpart II, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider the following matters, among others, as being in the public interest and consistent with public convenience and necessity:
(1) assigning and maintaining safety as the highest priority in air commerce.
(2) before authorizing new air transportation services, evaluating the safety implications of those services.
(3) preventing deterioration in established safety procedures, recognizing the clear intent, encouragement, and dedication of Congress to further the highest degree of safety in air transportation and air commerce, and to maintain the safety vigilance that has evolved in air transportation and air commerce and has come to be expected by the traveling and shipping public.
(4) the availability of a variety of adequate, economic, efficient, and low-priced services without unreasonable discrimination or unfair or deceptive practices.
(5) coordinating transportation by, and improving relations among, air carriers, and encouraging fair wages and working conditions.
(6) placing maximum reliance on competitive market forces and on actual and potential competition--
(A) to provide the needed air transportation system; and
(B) to encourage efficient and well-managed air carriers to earn adequate profits and attract capital, considering any material differences between interstate air transportation and foreign air transportation.
(7) developing and maintaining a sound regulatory system that is responsive to the needs of the public and in which decisions are reached promptly to make it easier to adapt the air transportation system to the present and future needs of--
(A) the commerce of the United States;
(B) the United States Postal Service; and
(C) the national defense.
(8) encouraging air transportation at major urban areas through secondary or satellite airports if consistent with regional airport plans of regional and local authorities, and if endorsed by appropriate State authorities--
(A) encouraging the transportation by air carriers that provide, in a specific market, transportation exclusively at those airports; and
(B) fostering an environment that allows those carriers to establish themselves and develop secondary or satellite airport services.
(9) preventing unfair, deceptive, predatory, or anticompetitive practices in air transportation.
(10) avoiding unreasonable industry concentration, excessive market domination, monopoly powers, and other conditions that would tend to allow at least one air carrier or foreign air carrier unreasonably to increase prices, reduce services, or exclude competition in air transportation.
(11) maintaining a complete and convenient system of continuous scheduled interstate air transportation for small communities and isolated areas with direct financial assistance from the United States Government when appropriate.
(12) encouraging, developing, and maintaining an air transportation system relying on actual and potential competition--
(A) to provide efficiency, innovation, and low prices; and
(B) to decide on the variety and quality of, and determine prices for, air transportation services.
(13) encouraging entry into air transportation markets by new and existing air carriers and the continued strengthening of small air carriers to ensure a more effective and competitive airline industry.
(14) promoting, encouraging, and developing civil aeronautics and a viable, privately-owned United States air transport industry.
(15) strengthening the competitive position of air carriers to at least ensure equality with foreign air carriers, including the attainment of the opportunity for air carriers to maintain and increase their profitability in foreign air transportation.
(16) ensuring that consumers in all regions of the United States, including those in small communities and rural and remote areas, have access to affordable, regularly scheduled air service.
(b) All-cargo air transportation considerations. --In carrying out subpart II of this part and those provisions of subpart IV applicable in carrying out subpart II, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider the following matters, among others and in addition to the matters referred to in subsection (a) of this section, as being in the public interest for all-cargo air transportation:
(1) encouraging and developing an expedited all-cargo air transportation system provided by private enterprise and responsive to--
(A) the present and future needs of shippers;
(B) the commerce of the United States; and
(C) the national defense.
(2) encouraging and developing an integrated transportation system relying on competitive market forces to decide the extent, variety, quality, and price of services provided.
(3) providing services without unreasonable discrimination, unfair or deceptive practices, or predatory pricing.
(c) General safety considerations. --In carrying out subpart III of this part and those provisions of subpart IV applicable in carrying out subpart III, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consider the following matters:
(1) the requirements of national defense and commercial and general aviation.
(2) the public right of freedom of transit through the navigable airspace.
(d) Safety considerations in public interest. --In carrying out subpart III of this part and those provisions of subpart IV applicable in carrying out subpart III, the Administrator shall consider the following matters, among others, as being in the public interest:
(1) assigning, maintaining, and enhancing safety and security as the highest priorities in air commerce.
(2) regulating air commerce in a way that best promotes safety and fulfills national defense requirements.
(3) encouraging and developing civil aeronautics.
(4) controlling the use of the navigable airspace and regulating civil and military operations in that airspace in the interest of the safety and efficiency of both of those operations.
(5) consolidating research and development for air navigation facilities and the installation and operation of those facilities.
(6) developing and operating a common system of air traffic control and navigation for military and civil aircraft.
(7) providing assistance to law enforcement agencies in the enforcement of laws related to regulation of controlled substances, to the extent consistent with aviation safety.
(e) International air transportation. --In formulating United States international air transportation policy, the Secretaries of State and Transportation shall develop a negotiating policy emphasizing the greatest degree of competition compatible with a well-functioning international air transportation system, including the following:
(1) strengthening the competitive position of air carriers to ensure at least equality with foreign air carriers, including the attainment of the opportunity for air carriers to maintain and increase their profitability in foreign air transportation.
(2) freedom of air carriers and foreign air carriers to offer prices that correspond to consumer demand.
(3) the fewest possible restrictions on charter air transportation.
(4) the maximum degree of multiple and permissive international authority for air carriers so that they will be able to respond quickly to a shift in market demand.
(5) eliminating operational and marketing restrictions to the greatest extent possible.
(6) integrating domestic and international air transportation.
(7) increasing the number of nonstop United States gateway cities.
(8) opportunities for carriers of foreign countries to increase their access to places in the United States if exchanged for benefits of similar magnitude for air carriers or the traveling public with permanent linkage between rights granted and rights given away.
(9) eliminating discrimination and unfair competitive practices faced by United States airlines in foreign air transportation, including--
(A) excessive landing and user fees;
(B) unreasonable ground handling requirements;
(C) unreasonable restrictions on operations;
(D) prohibitions against change of gauge; and
(E) similar restrictive practices.
(10) promoting, encouraging, and developing civil aeronautics and a viable, privately-owned United States air transport industry.
(f) Strengthening competition. --In selecting an air carrier to provide foreign air transportation from among competing applicants, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider, in addition to the matters specified in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the strengthening of competition among air carriers operating in the United States to prevent unreasonable concentration in the air carrier industry.
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