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42 U.S.C. § 13435 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 42. The Public Health and Welfare § 13435. Electric motor vehicles and associated equipment research and development

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The Secretary shall conduct, pursuant to the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5901-5920), a research and development program on electric motor vehicles and associated equipment.  Such program shall be conducted in cooperation with the electric utility industry, and automobile industry, battery manufacturers, and such other persons as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(b)Comprehensive plan

(1) The Secretary shall prepare a comprehensive 5-year program plan for carrying out the purposes of this section.  Such comprehensive plan shall be updated biennially for a period of not less than 10 years after October 24, 1992.

(2) The comprehensive plan under paragraph (1) shall be prepared in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Commerce, the heads of other appropriate Federal agencies, representatives of the electric utility industry, electric motor vehicle manufacturers, the United States automobile industry, and such other persons as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(3) The comprehensive plan shall include--

(A) a prioritization of research areas critical to the commercialization of electric motor vehicles, including advanced battery technology;

(B) the program elements, management structure, and activities, including program responsibilities, of Federal agencies;

(C) the program strategies, including technical milestones to be achieved toward specific goals during each fiscal year of the comprehensive plan for all major activities and projects;

(D) the estimated costs of individual program elements, including estimated costs for each of the fiscal years of the comprehensive plan for each of the participating Federal agencies;

(E) a description of the methods of technology transfer;

(F) a proposal for participation by non-Federal entities in the implementation of the comprehensive plan;  and

(G) such other information as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(4) Not later than 180 days after October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall transmit the comprehensive plan to the Congress.  Biennial updates shall be submitted to the Congress.

(c)Cooperative agreements

The Secretary, consistent with the comprehensive plan under subsection (b) of this section, may enter into cooperative agreements to conduct research and development projects with industry in such areas of technology development as--

(1) high efficiency electric power trains, including advanced motors, motor controllers, and hybrid power trains for electric motor vehicle range improvement;

(2) light-weight structures for electric motor vehicle weight reduction;

(3) advanced batteries with high energy density and power density, and improved range or recharging cycles for a given unit weight, for electric motor vehicle application;

(4) hybrid power trains incorporating an electric motor and recyclable battery charged by an onboard liquid fuel engine, designed to significantly improve fuel economies while maintaining acceleration characteristics comparable to a conventionally fueled vehicle;

(5) batteries and fuel cells for electric-hybrid vehicle application;

(6) fuel cells and fuel cell systems for primary electric motor vehicle power sources;  and

(7) photovoltaics for use with electric motor vehicles.

(d)Solicitation of proposals

(1) Within one year after October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall solicit proposals for cooperative agreements for research and development under subsection (c) of this section.

(2) Thereafter, the Secretary may solicit additional proposals for cooperative agreements under subsection (c) of this section if, in the judgment of the Secretary, such cooperative agreements could contribute to the development of electric motor vehicles and associated equipment.


(1) The Secretary shall require at least 50 percent of the costs directly and specifically related to any cooperative agreement under this section, other than a cooperative agreement under subsection (j) of this section, to be from non-Federal sources.  Such share may be in the form of cash, personnel, services, equipment, and other resources.

(2) The Secretary may reduce the amount of costs required to be provided by non-Federal sources under paragraph (1), if the Secretary determines that the reduction is necessary and appropriate--

(A) considering the technological risks involved in the project;  and

(B) in order to meet the objectives of this section.


(1) The Secretary shall conduct a program designed to accelerate deployment of advanced battery technologies for use with electric motor vehicles.

(2) In carrying out the program authorized by this subsection, the Secretary shall--

(A) undertake an inventory and assessment of advanced battery technologies and electric motor vehicle technologies and the commercial capability of such technologies;  and

(B) develop a Federal industry information exchange program to improve the deployment or use of such technologies, which may consist of workshops, publications, conferences, and a data base for use by the public and private sectors.

(g)Domestic parts manufacturers

In carrying out this section, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, shall issue regulations to ensure that the procurement practices of participating electric motor vehicle and associated equipment manufacturers do not discriminate against the United States manufacturers of vehicle parts.

(h)Hold harmless

Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter, affect, modify, or change any activities or agreements initiated prior to October 24, 1992, with domestic motor vehicle manufacturers through joint venture or consortium agreements regarding batteries for electric motor vehicles.


The Secretary shall consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Transportation in carrying out this section.

(j)Fuel cells for transportation

(1) The Secretary shall develop and implement a comprehensive program of research, development, and demonstration of fuel cells and related systems for transportation applications through the establishment of one or more cooperative programs among industry, government, and research institutions to develop and demonstrate the use of fuel cells as the primary power source for private and mass transit vehicles and other mobile applications.

(2) Research, development, and demonstration activities under this subsection shall be designed to incorporate one or more of the following priorities:

(A) The potential for near-term to mid-term commercialization.

(B) The ability of the systems to use a variety of renewable and nonfossil fuels.

(C) Emission reduction and energy conservation potential.

(D) The potential to utilize fuel cells and fuel cell systems developed under Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration programs.

(E) The potential to take maximum practical advantage of advances made in electric motor vehicle research, stationary source fuel cell research, and other research activities authorized by this subchapter.

(3)(A) Research, development, and demonstration projects selected by the Secretary under this subsection shall apply to--

(i) passenger vehicles;

(ii) vans and utility vehicles;

(iii) light rail systems and locomotives;

(iv) trucks, including long-haul trucks, dump trucks, and garbage trucks;

(v) passenger buses;

(vi) non-chlorofluorocarbon mobile refrigeration systems;

(vii) marine vessels, including recreational marine engines;  or

(viii) mobile engines and power generation, including recreational generators, and industrial and construction equipment.

(B) The Secretary shall establish programs to undertake research, development, and demonstration activities for the applications listed in clauses (i) through (viii) of subparagraph (A) in each of fiscal years 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996, based on the priorities established in paragraph (2), so that by the end of the period, research, development, and demonstration activities are under way for the applications under each such clause.  The initiatives authorized and implemented pursuant to this subsection shall be in addition to any other fuel cell programs authorized in existing law.


For purposes of this section--

(1) the term “advanced battery technology” means electrochemical storage devices and systems, including fuel cells, and associated technology necessary to charge, discharge, recharge, or regenerate such devices, for use as a source of power for an electric motor vehicle and any other associated equipment;

(2) the term “associated equipment” means equipment necessary for the regeneration, refueling, or recharging of batteries or other forms of electric energy used to power an electric motor vehicle and, in the case of electric-hybrid vehicles, such term includes nonpetroleum-related equipment necessary for, and solely related to, the demonstration of such vehicles;

(3) the term “electric motor vehicle” means a motor vehicle primarily powered by an electric motor that draws current from rechargeable storage batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaic arrays, or other sources of electric current and may include an electric-hybrid vehicle;  and

(4) the term “electric-hybrid vehicle” means vehicle primarily powered by an electric motor that draws current from rechargeable storage batteries, fuel cells, or other sources of electric current and also relies on a nonelectric source of power that also operates on or is capable of operating on a nonelectrical source of power.

Cite this article: - 42 U.S.C. § 13435 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 42. The Public Health and Welfare § 13435. Electric motor vehicles and associated equipment research and development - last updated January 01, 2018 |

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