Texas Business and Commerce Code - BUS & COM § 17.45. Definitions

As used in this subchapter:

(1) “Goods” means tangible chattels or real property purchased or leased for use.

(2) “Services” means work, labor, or service purchased or leased for use, including services furnished in connection with the sale or repair of goods.

(3) “Person” means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other group, however organized.

(4) “Consumer” means an individual, partnership, corporation, this state, or a subdivision or agency of this state who seeks or acquires by purchase or lease, any goods or services, except that the term does not include a business consumer that has assets of $25 million or more, or that is owned or controlled by a corporation or entity with assets of $25 million or more.

(5) “Unconscionable action or course of action” means an act or practice which, to a consumer's detriment, takes advantage of the lack of knowledge, ability, experience, or capacity of the consumer to a grossly unfair degree.

(6) “Trade” and “commerce” mean the advertising, offering for sale, sale, lease, or distribution of any good or service, of any property, tangible or intangible, real, personal, or mixed, and any other article, commodity, or thing of value, wherever situated, and shall include any trade or commerce directly or indirectly affecting the people of this state.

(7) “Documentary material” includes the original or a copy of any book, record, report, memorandum, paper, communication, tabulation, map, chart, photograph, mechanical transcription, or other tangible document or recording, wherever situated.

(8) “Consumer protection division” means the consumer protection division of the attorney general's office.

(9) “Knowingly” means actual awareness, at the time of the act or practice complained of, of the falsity, deception, or unfairness of the act or practice giving rise to the consumer's claim or, in an action brought under Subdivision (2) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.50 , actual awareness of the act, practice, condition, defect, or failure constituting the breach of warranty, but actual awareness may be inferred where objective manifestations indicate that a person acted with actual awareness.

(10) “Business consumer” means an individual, partnership, or corporation who seeks or acquires by purchase or lease, any goods or services for commercial or business use.  The term does not include this state or a subdivision or agency of this state.

(11) “Economic damages” means compensatory damages for pecuniary loss, including costs of repair and replacement.  The term does not include exemplary damages or damages for physical pain and mental anguish, loss of consortium, disfigurement, physical impairment, or loss of companionship and society.

(12) “Residence” means a building:

(A) that is a single-family house, duplex, triplex, or quadruplex or a unit in a multiunit residential structure in which title to the individual units is transferred to the owners under a condominium or cooperative system;  and

(B) that is occupied or to be occupied as the consumer's residence.

(13) “Intentionally” means actual awareness of the falsity, deception, or unfairness of the act or practice, or the condition, defect, or failure constituting a breach of warranty giving rise to the consumer's claim, coupled with the specific intent that the consumer act in detrimental reliance on the falsity or deception or in detrimental ignorance of the unfairness.  Intention may be inferred from objective manifestations that indicate that the person acted intentionally or from facts showing that a defendant acted with flagrant disregard of prudent and fair business practices to the extent that the defendant should be treated as having acted intentionally.

(14) “Vehicle protection product”:

(A) means a product or system, including a written warranty:

(i) that is:

(a) installed on or applied to a vehicle;  and

(b) designed to prevent loss of or damage to a vehicle from a specific cause;  and

(ii) under which, after installation or application of the product or system described by Subparagraph (i), if loss or damage results from the failure of the product or system to perform as represented in the warranty, the warrantor, to the extent agreed on as part of the warranty, is required to pay expenses to the person in this state who purchases or otherwise possesses the product or system for the loss of or damage to the vehicle;  and

(B) may also include identity recovery, as defined by Section 1304.003, Occupations Code , if the product or system described by Paragraph (A) is financed under Chapter 348 or 353, Finance Code.

(15) “Warrantor” means a person named under the terms of a vehicle protection product warranty as the contractual obligor to a person in this state who purchases or otherwise possesses a vehicle protection product.

(16) “Loss of or damage to the vehicle,” for purposes of Subdivision (14)(A)(ii), may also include unreimbursed incidental expenses that may be incurred by the warrantor, including expenses for a replacement vehicle, temporary vehicle rental expenses, and registration expenses for replacement vehicles.


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