Pennsylvania Statutes Title 18 Pa.C.S.A. Crimes and Offenses § 4116. Copying;  recording devices

(a)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

“Manufacturer.”  The person or entity which authorized or caused the recording or transfer of sounds, images or a combination of sounds and images to the recorded device in issue.  The term shall not include the manufacturer of the cartridge or casing itself.

“Owner.”  The person who owns the master phonograph record, master disc, master tape, master film or other device used for reproducing recorded sounds on phonograph records, discs, tapes, films or other articles on which sound is recorded and from which the transferred sounds are directly or indirectly derived.

“Recorded device.”  Any phonograph record, disc, tape, film, videotape, video cassette or other tangible article, now known or later developed, upon which sounds or images or any combination of sounds and images are recorded.

(b) Unauthorized transfer of sounds on recording devices.--It shall be unlawful for any person to:

(1) knowingly transfer or cause to be transferred, directly or indirectly by any means, any sounds recorded on a phonograph record, disc, wire, tape, film or other article on which sounds are recorded, with the intent to sell or cause to be sold, or to be used for profit through public performance, such article on which sounds are so transferred, without consent of the owner;  or

(2) manufacture, distribute or wholesale any article with the knowledge that the sounds are so transferred, without consent of the owner.

(c) Exceptions.--

(1) Subsection (b) shall not apply to any person engaged in radio or television broadcasting who transfers, or causes to be transferred, any such sounds other than from the sound track of a motion picture intended for, or in connection with broadcast or telecast transmission or related uses, or for archival purposes.

(2) Subsection (b) shall not apply to motion pictures or to sound recordings fixed on or after February 15, 1972.

(d) Manufacture, sale or rental of illegal recording or recorded devices.-- It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly manufacture, transport, sell, resell, rent, advertise or offer for sale, resale or rental or cause the manufacture, sale, resale or rental or possess for such purpose or purposes any recorded device in violation of this section.

(d.1) Manufacture, sale or rental of a recording of a live performance without consent of the owner.--

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly manufacture, transport, sell, resell, rent, advertise or offer for sale, resale or rental or cause the manufacture, sale, resale or rental or possess for such purpose or purposes any recording of a live performance with the knowledge that the live performance has been recorded without the consent of the owner.

(2) In the absence of a written agreement or law to the contrary, the performer or performers of a live performance are presumed to own the rights to record those sounds.

(3) For purposes of this section, a person who is authorized to maintain custody and control over business records that reflect whether or not the owner of the live performance consented to having the live performance recorded is a competent witness in a proceeding regarding the issue of consent.

(e) Name of manufacturer on recorded device packaging.--Every recorded device manufactured, transported, rented, sold, offered for sale or rental, or transferred or possessed for such purpose or purposes by any person shall contain on its packaging or label the true name of the manufacturer.

(f) Confiscation of non-conforming recorded devices.--It shall be the duty of all law enforcement officers, upon discovery, to confiscate all recorded devices that do not conform to the provisions of subsection (e).  The non-conforming recorded devices shall be delivered to the district attorney of the county in which the confiscation was made.  The officer confiscating the recorded devices shall provide to the person from whom the recorded devices were confiscated notice that the person may request a hearing concerning the confiscation and disposition of the devices.  Thereafter, the district attorney may seek a court order for destruction of the recorded devices.  The provisions of this section shall apply to any non-conforming recorded device, regardless of the requirement in subsection (d) of knowledge or intent.

(g) Grading of offenses.--

(1) Any violation of the provisions of this section involving, within any 180-day period, at least 100 devices upon which motion pictures or portions thereof have been recorded or at least 1,000 devices containing sound recordings or portions thereof is a felony of the third degree.  A second or subsequent conviction is a felony of the second degree if at the time of sentencing the defendant has been convicted of another violation of this section.

(2) Any other violation of the provisions of this section not described in paragraph (1) upon a first conviction is a misdemeanor of the first degree and upon a second or subsequent conviction is a felony of the third degree if at the time of sentencing the defendant has been convicted of another violation of this section.

(h) Rights of owners and producers to damages.--

(1) Any owner of a recorded device whose work is allegedly the subject of a violation of the provisions of subsection (b), (d) or (e) shall have a cause of action for all damages resultant therefrom, including actual and punitive damages.

(2) Any lawful producer of a recorded device whose product is allegedly the subject of a violation of the provisions of subsection (b), (d) or (e) shall have a cause of action for all damages resultant therefrom, including actual and punitive damages.

(3) Upon conviction for any offense under this section, the offender may be sentenced to make restitution to any owner or lawful producer of a recorded device or any other person who suffered injury resulting from the crime.  Notwithstanding any limitation in section 1106 (relating to restitution for injuries to person or property), the order of restitution may be based on the aggregate wholesale value of lawfully manufactured and authorized recorded devices corresponding to the non-conforming recorded devices involved in the offense.  All other provisions of section 1106 not inconsistent with this provision shall apply to an order of restitution under this section.

(i) Forfeiture.--

(1) No property right shall exist in any property used or intended for use in the commission of a violation of this section or in any proceeds traceable to a violation of this section, and the same shall be deemed contraband and forfeited in accordance with the provisions of 42 Pa.C.S. §§ 5803 (relating to asset forfeiture), 5805 (relating to forfeiture procedure), 5806 (relating to motion for return of property), 5807 (relating to restrictions on use), 5807.1 (relating to prohibition on adoptive seizures) and 5808 (relating to exceptions).

(2) Deleted by 2017, June 29, P.L. 247, No. 13, § 6 , effective July 1, 2017.

(3) The provisions of this subsection shall not, in any way, limit the right of the Commonwealth to exercise any rights or remedies otherwise provided by law.


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