New York Consolidated Laws, Multiple Dwelling Law - MDW § 286. Tenant protection

1. It shall not be a ground for an action or proceeding to recover possession of a unit occupied by a residential occupant qualified for the protection of this article that the occupancy of the unit is illegal or in violation of provisions of the tenant's lease or rental agreement because a residential certificate of occupancy has not been issued for the building, or because residential occupancy is not permitted by the lease or rental agreement.

2. (i) Prior to compliance with safety and fire protection standards of article seven-B of this chapter, residential occupants qualified for protection pursuant to this article shall be entitled to continued occupancy, provided that the unit is their primary residence, and shall pay the same rent, including escalations, specified in their lease or rental agreement to the extent to which such lease or rental agreement remains in effect or, in the absence of a lease or rental agreement, the same rent most recently paid and accepted by the owner;  if there is no lease or other rental agreement in effect, rent adjustments prior to article seven-B compliance shall be in conformity with guidelines to be set by the loft board for such residential occupants within six months from the effective date of this article.

(ii) In addition to any rent adjustment pursuant to paragraph (i) of this subdivision, on or after June twenty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two, the rent for residential units in interim multiple dwellings that are not yet in compliance with the requirements of subdivision one of section two hundred eighty-four of this article shall be adjusted as follows:

(A) [Eff. until June 30, 2019, pursuant to L.2013, c. 4, § 27 (h).  See, also subpar. (A) below.] Upon the owners' filing of an alteration application, as required by paragraph (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) , or (vi) of subdivision one of section two hundred eighty-four of this article, an adjustment equal to three percent of the rent in effect at the time the owner files the alteration application.

(A) [Eff. June 30, 2019, pursuant to L.2013, c. 4, § 27 (h).  See, also subpar. (A) above.] Upon the owners' filing of an alteration application, as required by paragraph (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) , or (vi) of subdivision one of section two hundred eighty-four of this article, an adjustment equal to six percent of the rent in effect at the time the owner files the alteration application.

(B) [Eff. until June 30, 2019, pursuant to L.2013, c. 4, § 27 (h).  See, also subpar. (B) below.] Upon obtaining an alteration permit, as required by paragraph (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) , or (vi) of subdivision one of section two hundred eighty-four of this article, an adjustment equal to three percent of the rent in effect at the time the owner obtains the alteration permit.

(B) [Eff. June 30, 2019, pursuant to L.2013, c. 4, § 27 (h).  See, also subpar. (B) above.] Upon obtaining an alteration permit, as required by paragraph (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) , or (vi) of subdivision one of section two hundred eighty-four of this article, an adjustment equal to eight percent of the rent in effect at the time the owner obtains the alteration permit.

(C) [Eff. until June 30, 2019, pursuant to L.2013, c. 4, § 27 (h).  See, also subpar. (C) below.] Upon achieving compliance with the standards of safety and fire protection set forth in article seven-B of this chapter for the residential portions of the building, an adjustment equal to four percent of the rent in effect at the time the owner achieves such compliance.

(C) [Eff. June 30, 2019, pursuant to L.2013, c. 4, § 27 (h).  See, also subpar. (C) above.] Upon achieving compliance with the standards of safety and fire protection set forth in article seven-B of this chapter for the residential portions of the building, an adjustment equal to six percent of the rent in effect at the time the owner achieves such compliance.

(D) Owners who filed an alteration application prior to the effective date of this subparagraph shall be entitled to a prospective adjustment equal to six percent of the rent on the effective date of this subparagraph.

(E) Owners who obtained an alteration permit prior to June twenty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two shall be entitled to a prospective adjustment equal to fourteen percent of the rent on June twenty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two.

(F) Owners who achieved compliance with the standards of safety and fire protection set forth in article seven-B of this chapter for the residential portions of the building prior to June twenty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two shall be entitled to a prospective adjustment equal to twenty percent of the rent on June twenty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two.

(iii) Any rent adjustments pursuant to paragraph (ii) of this subdivision shall not apply to units which were rented at market value after June twenty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-two and prior to June twenty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two.  This paragraph shall not apply to units made subject to this article by subdivision five of section two hundred eighty-one of this article.

(iv) Payment of any rent adjustments pursuant to paragraph (ii) of this subdivision shall commence the month immediately following the month in which the act entitling the owner to the adjustment occurred.

3. Upon or after compliance with the safety and fire protection standards of article seven-B of this chapter, an owner may apply to the loft board for an adjustment of rent based upon the cost of such compliance.  Upon approval by the loft board of such compliance, the loft board shall set the initial legal regulated rent, and each residential occupant qualified for protection pursuant to this article shall be offered a residential lease subject to the provisions regarding evictions and regulation of rent set forth in the emergency tenant protection act of nineteen seventy-four,  1 except to the extent the provisions of this article are inconsistent with such act.

4. The initial legal regulated rent established by the loft board shall be equal to (i) the rent in effect, including escalations, as of the date of application for adjustment (“base rent”), plus, (ii) the maximum annual amount of any increase allocable to compliance as provided herein;  and (iii) the percentage increase then applicable to one, two or three year leases as elected by the tenant, as established by the local rent guidelines board, and applied to the base rent, provided, however, such percentage increases may be adjusted downward by the loft board if prior increases based on loft board guidelines cover part of the same time period to be covered by the rent guidelines board adjustments.

5. An owner may apply to the loft board for rent adjustments once based upon the cost of compliance with article seven-B of this chapter and once based upon the obtaining of a residential certificate of occupancy.  If the initial legal regulated rent has been set based only upon article seven-B compliance, a further adjustment may be obtained upon the obtaining of a residential certificate of occupancy.  Upon receipt of such records as the loft board shall require, the loft board shall determine the costs necessarily and reasonably incurred, including financing, in obtaining compliance with this article pursuant to a schedule of reasonable costs to be promulgated by it.  The adjustment in maximum rents for compliance with this article shall be determined either (i) by dividing the amount of the cash cost of such improvements exclusive of interest and service charges over a ten year period of amortization, or (ii) by dividing the amount of the cash cost of such improvements exclusive of interest and service charges over a fifteen year period of amortization, plus the actual annual mortgage debt service attributable to interest and service charges in each year of indebtedness to an institutional lender, or other lender approved by the loft board, incurred by the owner to pay the cash cost of the improvements, provided that the maximum amount of interest charged includable in rent shall reflect an annual amortization factor of one-fifteenth of the outstanding principal balance.  Rental adjustments to each residential unit shall be determined on a basis approved by the loft board.  An owner may elect that the loft board shall deem the total cost of compliance with this article to be the amounts certified by the local department of housing preservation and development of such municipality in any certificate of eligibility issued in connection with an application for tax exemption or tax abatement to the extent such certificate reflects categories of costs approved by the loft board as reasonable and necessary for such compliance.  Rental adjustments attributable to the cost of compliance with this article shall not become part of the base rent for purposes of calculating rents adjusted pursuant to rent guidelines board increases.

6. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, a residential tenant qualified for protection pursuant to this chapter may sell any improvements to the unit made or purchased by him to an incoming tenant provided, however, that the tenant shall first offer the improvements to the owner for an amount equal to their fair market value.  Upon purchase of such improvements by the owner, any unit subject to rent regulation solely by reason of this article and not receiving any benefits of real estate tax exemption or tax abatement, shall be exempted from the provisions of this article requiring rent regulation if such building had fewer than six residential units as of the effective date of the act which added this article   2, or rented at market value subject to subsequent rent regulation if such building had six or more residential units at such time.  The loft board shall establish rules and regulations regarding such sale of improvements which shall include provisions that such right to sell improvements may be exercised only once for each unit subject to this article, and that the opportunity for decontrol or market rentals shall not be available to an owner found guilty by the loft board of harassment of tenants.

7. The local rent guidelines board shall annually establish guidelines for rent adjustments for the category of buildings covered by this article in accordance with the standards established pursuant to the emergency tenant protection act of nineteen seventy-four   1.  The local rent guidelines board shall consider the necessity of a separate category for such buildings, and a separately determined guideline for rent adjustments for those units in which heat is not required to be provided by the owner, and may establish such separate category and guideline.  The loft board shall annually commission a study by an independent consultant to assist the rent guidelines board in determining the economics of loft housing.

8. Cooperative and condominium units occupied by owners or tenant-shareholders shall not be subject to rent regulation pursuant to this article.

9. No eviction plan for conversion to cooperative or condominium ownership for a building which is, or a portion of which is an interim multiple dwelling shall be submitted for filing to the department of law pursuant to the general business law until a residential certificate of occupancy is obtained as required by this article, and the residential occupants qualified for protection pursuant to this article are offered one, two or three year leases, as elected by such persons, in accordance with the provisions for establishment of initial legal regulated rent contained herein.  Non-eviction plans for such buildings may be submitted for filing only if the sponsor remains responsible for compliance with article seven-B and for all work in common areas required to obtain a residential certificate of occupancy.  Cooperative conversion shall be fully in accordance with section three hundred fifty-two-eeee of the general business law, the requirements of the code of the local real estate industry stabilization association, and with the rules and regulations promulgated by the attorney general.

10. The functions of the local conciliation and appeals board of such municipality regarding owners and tenants subject to rent regulation pursuant to this article shall be carried out by the loft board until such time as provided otherwise by local law.

11. Residential occupants qualified for protection pursuant to this article shall be afforded the protections available to residential tenants pursuant to the real property law and the real property actions and proceedings law.

12. No waiver of rights pursuant to this article by a residential occupant qualified for protection pursuant to this article made prior to the effective date of the act which added this article   2 shall be accorded any force or effect;  however, subsequent to the effective date an owner and a residential occupant may agree to the purchase by the owner of such person's rights in a unit.

13. The applicability of the emergency tenant protection act of nineteen seventy-four   1 to buildings occupied by residential tenants qualified for protection pursuant to this article shall be subject to a declaration of emergency by the local legislative body.  In the event such act expires prior to the expiration of this article   3, tenents   4 in interim multiple dwellings shall be included in coverage of the rent stabilization law of nineteen hundred sixty-nine of the city of New York   5.

1 McKinney's Unconsol.Laws § 8621 et seq.
2 June 21, 1982.
3 See section 3 of L.1982, c. 349, set out as a note under McKinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated, Multiple Dwelling Law § 280.
4 So in original.
5 New York City Administrative Code § 26-501 et seq., following McKinney's Unconsol.Laws § 8617.

FindLaw Codes are provided courtesy of Thomson Reuters Westlaw, the industry-leading online legal research system. For more detailed codes research information, including annotations and citations, please visit Westlaw.

FindLaw Codes may not reflect the most recent version of the law in your jurisdiction. Please verify the status of the code you are researching with the state legislature or via Westlaw before relying on it for your legal needs.