New York Consolidated Laws, Criminal Procedure Law - CPL § 180.10 Proceedings upon felony complaint;  arraignment;  defendant's rights, court's instructions and bail matters

1. Upon the defendant's arraignment before a local criminal court upon a felony complaint, the court must immediately inform him, or cause him to be informed in its presence, of the charge or charges against him and that the primary purpose of the proceedings upon such felony complaint is to determine whether the defendant is to be held for the action of a grand jury with respect to the charges contained therein.  The court must furnish the defendant with a copy of the felony complaint.

2. The defendant has a right to a prompt hearing upon the issue of whether there is sufficient evidence to warrant the court in holding him for the action of a grand jury, but he may waive such right.

3. The defendant has a right to the aid of counsel at the arraignment and at every subsequent stage of the action, and, if he appears upon such arraignment without counsel, has the following rights:

(a) To an adjournment for the purpose of obtaining counsel;  and

(b) To communicate, free of charge, by letter or by telephone provided by the law enforcement facility where the defendant is held to a phone number located in the United States or Puerto Rico, for the purpose of obtaining counsel and informing a relative or friend that he or she has been charged with an offense;  and

(c) To have counsel assigned by the court in any case where he is financially unable to obtain the same.

4. The court must inform the defendant of all rights specified in subdivisions two and three.  The court must accord the defendant opportunity to exercise such rights and must itself take such affirmative action as is necessary to effectuate them.

5. If the defendant desires to proceed without the aid of counsel, the court must permit him to do so if it is satisfied that he made such decision with knowledge of the significance thereof, but if it is not so satisfied it may not proceed until the defendant is provided with counsel, either of his own choosing or by assignment.  A defendant who proceeds at the arraignment without counsel does not waive his right to counsel, and the court must inform him that he continues to have such right as well as all the rights specified in subdivision three which are necessary to effectuate it, and that he may exercise such rights at any stage of the action.

6. Upon the arraignment, the court, unless it intends immediately thereafter to dismiss the felony complaint and terminate the action, must issue a securing order which, as provided in subdivision two of section 530.20 , either releases the defendant on his own recognizance or fixes bail or commits him to the custody of the sheriff for his future appearance in such action.

7. Notwithstanding any contrary provision of this section, when an off-hours arraignment part designated in accordance with paragraph (w) of subdivision one of section two hundred twelve of the judiciary law is in operation in the county in which the court is located, the court must adjourn the proceedings before it, and direct that the proceedings be continued in such off-hours part when the defendant has appeared before the court without counsel and no counsel is otherwise available at the time of such appearance to aid the defendant.


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