New Jersey Statutes Title 54. Taxation 54 § 10A-4

< L.2018, c. 131, § 2, amended this section, eff. Oct. 4, 2018, retroactive to Jan. 1, 2018 .  The retroactive amendment was incorporated into this version of the section.>

For the purposes of this act, unless the context requires a different meaning:

(a) “Commissioner” or “director” shall mean the Director of the Division of Taxation of the State Department of the Treasury.

(b) “Allocation factor” shall mean the proportionate part of a taxpayer's net worth or entire net income used to determine a measure of its tax under this act.

(c) “Corporation” shall mean any corporation, joint-stock company or association and any business conducted by a trustee or trustees wherein interest or ownership is evidenced by a certificate of interest or ownership or similar written instrument, any other entity classified as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, and any state or federally chartered building and loan association or savings and loan association.

(d) “Net worth” shall mean the aggregate of the values disclosed by the books of the corporation for (1) issued and outstanding capital stock, (2) paid-in or capital surplus, (3) earned surplus and undivided profits, and (4) surplus reserves which can reasonably be expected to accrue to holders or owners of equitable shares, not including reasonable valuation reserves, such as reserves for depreciation or obsolescence or depletion.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, net worth shall not include any deduction for the amount of the excess depreciation described in paragraph (2) (F) of subsection (k) of this section.  The foregoing aggregate of values shall be reduced by 50% of the amount disclosed by the books of the corporation for investment in the capital stock of one or more subsidiaries, which investment is defined as ownership (1) of at least 80% of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of the subsidiary entitled to vote and (2) of at least 80% of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock except nonvoting stock which is limited and preferred as to dividends.  In the case of investment in an entity organized under the laws of a foreign country, the foregoing requisite degree of ownership shall effect a like reduction of such investment from the net worth of the taxpayer, if the foreign entity is considered a corporation for any purpose under the United States federal income tax laws, such as (but not by way of sole examples) for the purpose of supplying deemed paid foreign tax credits or for the purpose of status as a controlled foreign corporation.  In calculating the net worth of a taxpayer entitled to reduction for investment in subsidiaries, the amount of liabilities of the taxpayer shall be reduced by such proportion of the liabilities as corresponds to the ratio which the excluded portion of the subsidiary values bears to the total assets of the taxpayer.

In the case of banking corporations which have international banking facilities as defined in subsection (n), the foregoing aggregate of values shall also be reduced by retained earnings of the international banking facility.  Retained earnings means the earnings accumulated over the life of such facility and shall not include the distributive share of dividends paid and federal income taxes paid or payable during the tax year.

If in the opinion of the director, the corporation's books do not disclose fair valuations the director may make a reasonable determination of the net worth which, in his opinion, would reflect the fair value of the assets, exclusive of subsidiary investments as defined aforesaid, carried on the books of the corporation, in accordance with sound accounting principles, and such determination shall be used as net worth for the purpose of this act.

(e) (Deleted by amendment, P.L.1998, c. 114 .)

(f) “Investment company” shall mean any corporation whose business during the period covered by its report consisted, to the extent of at least 90% thereof of holding, investing and reinvesting in stocks, bonds, notes, mortgages, debentures, patents, patent rights and other securities for its own account, but this shall not include any corporation which:  (1) is a merchant or a dealer of stocks, bonds and other securities, regularly engaged in buying the same and selling the same to customers;  or (2) had less than 90% of its average gross assets in New Jersey, at cost, invested in stocks, bonds, debentures, mortgages, notes, patents, patent rights or other securities or consisting of cash on deposit during the period covered by its report;  or (3) is a banking corporation, a savings institution, or a financial business corporation as defined in the Corporation Business Tax Act.

(g) “Regulated investment company” shall mean any corporation which for a period covered by its report, is registered and regulated under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 789), as amended.

(h) “Taxpayer” shall mean any corporation, and any partnership required, or consenting, to report or to pay taxes, interest or penalties under this act.  “Taxpayer” shall not include a partnership that is listed on a United States national stock exchange.

(i) “Fiscal year” shall mean an accounting period ending on any day other than the last day of December on the basis of which the taxpayer is required to report for federal income tax purposes.

(j) Except as herein provided, “privilege period” shall mean the calendar or fiscal accounting period for which a tax is payable under this act.

(k) “Entire net income” shall mean total net income from all sources, whether within or without the United States, and shall include the gain derived from the employment of capital or labor, or from both combined, as well as profit gained through a sale or conversion of capital assets.

For the purpose of this act, the amount of a taxpayer's entire net income shall be deemed prima facie to be equal in amount to the taxable income, before net operating loss deduction and special deductions, which the taxpayer is required to report, or, if the taxpayer is classified as a partnership for federal tax purposes, would otherwise be required to report, to the United States Treasury Department for the purpose of computing its federal income tax, provided however, that in the determination of such entire net income,

(1) Entire net income shall exclude for the periods set forth in paragraph (2)(F)(i) of this subsection, any amount, except with respect to qualified mass commuting vehicles as described in section 168(f)(8)(D)(v) of the Internal Revenue Code as in effect immediately prior to January 1, 1984, which is included in a taxpayer's federal taxable income solely as a result of an election made pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (8) of that section.

(2) Entire net income shall be determined without the exclusion, deduction or credit of:

(A) The amount of any exemption or credit allowed in any law of the United States imposing any tax on or measured by the income of corporations.

(B) Any part of any income from dividends or interest on any kind of stock, securities or indebtedness, except as provided in paragraph (5) of subsection (k) of this section.

(C) Taxes paid or accrued to the United States, a possession or territory of the United States, a state, a political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia, or to any foreign country, state, province, territory or subdivision thereof, on or measured by profits or income, or business presence or business activity, or the tax imposed by this act, or any tax paid or accrued with respect to subsidiary dividends excluded from entire net income as provided in paragraph (5) of subsection (k) of this section.

(D) (Deleted by amendment, P.L.1985, c. 143.)

(E) (Deleted by amendment, P.L.1995, c. 418 .)

(F)(i) The amount by which depreciation reported to the United States Treasury Department for property placed in service on and after January 1, 1981, but prior to taxpayer fiscal or calendar accounting years beginning on and after the effective date of P.L.1993, c. 172 , for purposes of computing federal taxable income in accordance with section 168 of the Internal Revenue Code in effect after December 31, 1980, exceeds the amount of depreciation determined in accordance with the Internal Revenue Code provisions in effect prior to January 1, 1981, but only with respect to a taxpayer's accounting period ending after December 31, 1981;  provided, however, that where a taxpayer's accounting period begins in 1981 and ends in 1982, no modification shall be required with respect to this paragraph (F) for the report filed for such period with respect to property placed in service during that part of the accounting period which occurs in 1981.  The provisions of this subparagraph shall not apply to assets placed in service prior to January 1, 1998 of a gas, gas and electric, and electric public utility that was subject to the provisions of P.L.1940, c. 5 ( C.54:30A-49 et seq. ) prior to 1998.

(ii) For the periods set forth in subparagraph (F)(i) of paragraph (2) of this subsection, any amount, except with respect to qualified mass commuting vehicles as described in section 168(f)(8)(D)(v) of the Internal Revenue Code as in effect immediately prior to January 1, 1984, which the taxpayer claimed as a deduction in computing federal income tax pursuant to a qualified lease agreement under paragraph (8) of that section.

The director shall promulgate rules and regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this section, which rules shall provide, among others, the manner in which the remaining life of property shall be reported.

(G)(i) The amount of any civil, civil administrative, or criminal penalty or fine, including a penalty or fine under an administrative consent order, assessed and collected for a violation of a State or federal environmental law, an administrative consent order, or an environmental ordinance or resolution of a local governmental entity, and any interest earned on the penalty or fine, and any economic benefits having accrued to the violator as a result of a violation, which benefits are assessed and recovered in a civil, civil administrative, or criminal action, or pursuant to an administrative consent order.  The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to a penalty or fine assessed or collected for a violation of a State or federal environmental law, or local environmental ordinance or resolution, if the penalty or fine was for a violation that resulted from fire, riot, sabotage, flood, storm event, natural cause, or other act of God beyond the reasonable control of the violator, or caused by an act or omission of a person who was outside the reasonable control of the violator.

(ii) The amount of treble damages paid to the Department of Environmental Protection pursuant to subsection a. of section 7 of P.L.1976, c. 141 ( C.58:10-23.11f ), for costs incurred by the department in removing, or arranging for the removal of, an unauthorized discharge upon failure of the discharger to comply with a directive from the department to remove, or arrange for the removal of, the discharge.

(H) The amount of any sales and use tax paid by a utility vendor pursuant to section 71 of P.L.1997, c. 162 .

(I) Interest paid, accrued or incurred for the privilege period to a related member, as defined in section 5 of P.L.2002, c. 40 ( C.54:10A-4.4 ), except that a deduction shall be permitted to the extent that the taxpayer establishes by clear and convincing evidence, as determined by the director, that:  (i) a principal purpose of the transaction giving rise to the payment of the interest was not to avoid taxes otherwise due under Title 54 of the Revised Statutes or Title 54A of the New Jersey Statutes, (ii) the interest is paid pursuant to arm's length contracts at an arm's length rate of interest, and (iii)(aa) the related member was subject to a tax on its net income or receipts in this State or another state or possession of the United States or in a foreign nation, (bb) a measure of the tax includes the interest received from the related member, and (cc) the rate of tax applied to the interest received by the related member is equal to or greater than a rate three percentage points less than the rate of tax applied to taxable interest by this State pursuant to section 5 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-5 ).

A deduction shall also be permitted if the taxpayer establishes by clear and convincing evidence, as determined by the director, that the disallowance of a deduction is unreasonable, or the taxpayer and the director agree in writing to the application or use of an alternative method of apportionment under section 8 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-8 );  nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit or negate the director's authority to otherwise enter into agreements and compromises otherwise allowed by law.

A deduction shall also be permitted to the extent that the taxpayer establishes by a preponderance of the evidence, as determined by the director, that the interest is directly or indirectly paid, accrued or incurred to (i) a related member in a foreign nation which has in force a comprehensive income tax treaty with the United States and the related member (aa) was subject to tax in the foreign nation on a tax base that included the payment paid, accrued, or incurred;  and (bb) under which the related member's income received from the transaction was taxed at an effective tax rate equal to or greater than a rate of three percentage points less than the rate of tax applied to taxable interest by the State of New Jersey pursuant to section 5 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-5 ), provided however that the taxpayer shall disclose on its return for the privilege period the name of the related member, the amount of the interest, the relevant foreign nation, and such other information as the director may prescribe or (ii) to an independent lender and the taxpayer guarantees the debt on which the interest is required. The adjustments required by this subparagraph shall not apply to transactions between related members included in a combined group reported on a New Jersey combined return.

(J)(i) Amounts deducted for federal tax purposes pursuant to section 199 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.199 , except that this exclusion shall not apply to amounts deducted pursuant to that section that are exclusively based upon domestic production gross receipts of the taxpayer which are derived only from any lease, rental, license, sale, exchange, or other disposition of qualifying production property which the taxpayer demonstrates to the satisfaction of the director was manufactured or produced by the taxpayer in whole or in significant part within the United States but not qualified production property that was grown or extracted by the taxpayer.  “Manufactured or produced” as used in this paragraph shall be limited to performance of an operation or series of operations the object of which is to place items of tangible personal property in a form, composition, or character different from that in which they were acquired.  The change in form, composition, or character shall be a substantial change, and result in a transformation of property into a different or substantially more usable product.

(ii) For privilege periods beginning after December 31, 2017, notwithstanding the provisions of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-1 et seq. ) or any other law to the contrary, for the purposes of determining the amount of income pursuant to P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-1 et seq. ) that is net of expenses, no amounts shall be taken as a deduction pursuant to section 199A of the Internal Revenue Code ( 26 U.S.C. s.199A ).

(K) For privilege periods beginning after December 31, 2017, the interest deduction limitation in subsection (j) of section 163 of the Internal Revenue Code ( 26 U.S.C. s.163 ), shall apply on a pro-rata basis to interest paid to both related and unrelated parties, regardless of whether the related parties are subject to the add-back provision of either subparagraph (I) of paragraph (2) of this subsection or in section 5 of P.L.2002, c. 40 ( C.54:10A-4.4 ).

(3) The director may, whenever necessary to properly reflect the entire net income of any taxpayer, determine the year or period in which any item of income or deduction shall be included, without being limited to the method of accounting employed by the taxpayer.

(4) There shall be allowed as a deduction from entire net income of a banking corporation, to the extent not deductible in determining federal taxable income, the eligible net income of an international banking facility determined as follows:

(A) The eligible net income of an international banking facility shall be the amount remaining after subtracting from the eligible gross income the applicable expenses;

(B) Eligible gross income shall be the gross income derived by an international banking facility, which shall include, but not be limited to, gross income derived from:

(i) Making, arranging for, placing or carrying loans to foreign persons, provided, however, that in the case of a foreign person which is an individual, or which is a foreign branch of a domestic corporation (other than a bank), or which is a foreign corporation or foreign partnership which is controlled by one or more domestic corporations (other than banks), domestic partnerships or resident individuals, all the proceeds of the loan are for use outside of the United States;

(ii) Making or placing deposits with foreign persons which are banks or foreign branches of banks (including foreign subsidiaries) or foreign branches of the taxpayers or with other international banking facilities;

(iii) Entering into foreign exchange trading or hedging transactions related to any of the transactions described in this paragraph;  or

(iv) Such other activities as an international banking facility may, from time to time, be authorized to engage in;

(C) Applicable expenses shall be any expense or other deductions attributable, directly or indirectly, to the eligible gross income described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.

(5)(A)(i) Entire net income shall exclude 100% of dividends which were included in computing such taxable income for federal income tax purposes, paid to the taxpayer by one or more subsidiaries owned by the taxpayer to the extent of the 80% or more ownership of investment described in subsection (d) of this section for privilege periods beginning on or before December 31, 2016.

<For provisions of L.2018, c. 131 relating to retroactive date of subsec. (k)(5)(A)(ii), see § 10 of that act.>

(ii) For privilege periods beginning after December 31, 2016 and before January 1, 2019, entire net income shall exclude 95% of dividends which were included in computing such taxable income for federal income tax purposes, paid or deemed paid, to the taxpayer by one or more subsidiaries owned by the taxpayer to the extent of the 80% or more ownership of investment described in subsection (d) of this section.  For the purposes of calculating the tax liability owed for the paid or deemed paid dividends included in entire net income by this subsection, the taxpayer shall use either their three-year average allocation factor for the taxpayer's 2014 through 2016 tax years reported on the taxpayer's tax returns or 3.5 percent, whichever is lower.

(iii) For privilege periods beginning on and after January 1, 2019, entire net income shall exclude 95% of dividends which were included in computing such taxable income for federal income tax purposes, paid or deemed paid to the taxpayer by one or more subsidiaries owned by the taxpayer to the extent of the 80% or more ownership of investment described in subsection (d) of this section.

(B) Entire net income shall exclude 50% of dividends which were included in computing such taxable income for federal income tax purposes, paid or deemed paid to the taxpayer by one or more subsidiaries owned by the taxpayer to the extent of 50% or more ownership of investment, such ownership of investment calculated in the same manner as the 80% or more of ownership of investment is calculated as described in subsection (d) of this section.

(C) To the extent a subsidiary received dividends from other subsidiaries and included those dividends in its entire net income for the purposes of determining its tax liability pursuant to section 5 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-5 ) and paid tax on those dividends, the taxpayer receiving those same dividends from the subsidiary shall exclude those dividends from its entire net income based on the subsidiary's allocation factor used by the subsidiary in determining its tax liability pursuant to section 5 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-5 ).

(6)(A) Net operating loss deduction.  For privilege periods ending before July 31, 2019, there shall be allowed as a deduction for the privilege period the net operating loss carryover to that period.

(B) Net operating loss carryover.  A net operating loss for any privilege period ending after June 30, 1984 shall be a net operating loss carryover to each of the seven privilege periods following the period of the loss and a net operating loss for any privilege period ending after June 30, 2009 shall be a net operating loss carryover to each of the twenty privilege periods following the period of the loss.  The entire amount of the net operating loss for any privilege period (the “loss period”) shall be carried to the earliest of the privilege periods to which the loss may be carried.  The portion of the loss which shall be carried to each of the other privilege periods shall be the excess, if any, of the amount of the loss over the sum of the entire net income, computed without the exclusions permitted in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection or the net operating loss deduction provided by subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, for each of the prior privilege periods to which the loss may be carried.

(C) Net operating loss.  For purposes of this paragraph the term “net operating loss” means the excess of the deductions over the gross income used in computing entire net income without the net operating loss deduction provided for in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph and the exclusions in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection.

(D) Change in ownership.  Where there is a change in 50% or more of the ownership of a corporation because of redemption or sale of stock and the corporation changes the trade or business giving rise to the loss, no net operating loss sustained before the changes may be carried over to be deducted from income earned after such changes.  In addition where the facts support the premise that the corporation was acquired under any circumstances for the primary purpose of the use of its net operating loss carryover, the director may disallow the carryover.

(E) Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph (6) of subsection (k) of this section to the contrary, for privilege periods beginning during calendar year 2002 and calendar year 2003, no deduction for any net operating loss carryover shall be allowed and for privilege periods beginning during calendar year 2004 and calendar year 2005, there shall be allowed as a deduction for the privilege period so much of the net operating loss carryover as reduces entire net income otherwise calculated by 50%.  If and only to the extent that any net operating loss carryover deduction is disallowed by reason of this subparagraph (E), the date on which the amount of the disallowed net operating loss carryover deduction would otherwise expire shall be extended by a period equal to the period for which application of the net operating loss was disallowed by this subparagraph.

Provided, that this subparagraph (E) shall not restrict the surrender or acquisition of corporation business tax benefit certificates pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1997, c. 334 ( C.34:1B-7.42a ) and shall not restrict the application of corporation business tax benefit certificates pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1997, c. 334 ( C.54:10A-4.2 ).

(F) Reduction for discharge of indebtedness.  A net operating loss for any privilege period ending after June 30, 2014, and any net operating loss carryover to such privilege period, shall be reduced by the amount excluded from federal taxable income under subparagraph (A) , (B) , or (C) of paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of section 108 of the federal Internal Revenue Code ( 26 U.S.C. s.108 ), for the privilege period of the discharge of indebtedness.

(7) The entire net income of gas, electric and gas and electric public utilities that were subject to, or would have been subject to tax if doing business in this State, the provisions of P.L.1940, c. 5 ( C.54:30A-49 et seq. ) prior to 1998, shall be adjusted by substituting the New Jersey depreciation allowance for federal tax depreciation with respect to assets placed in service prior to January 1, 1998.  For gas, electric, and gas and electric public utilities that were subject to, or would have been subject to tax if doing business in this State, the provisions of P.L.1940, c. 5 ( C.54:30A-49 et seq. ) prior to 1998, the New Jersey depreciation allowance shall be computed as follows:  All depreciable assets placed in service prior to January 1, 1998 shall be considered a single asset account.  The New Jersey tax basis of this depreciable asset account shall be an amount equal to the carryover adjusted basis for federal income tax purposes on December 31, 1997 of all depreciable assets in service on December 31, 1997, increased by the excess, of the “net carrying value,” defined to be adjusted book basis of all assets and liabilities, excluding deferred income taxes, recorded on the public utility's books of account on December 31, 1997, over the carryover adjusted basis for federal income tax purposes on December 31, 1997 of all assets and liabilities owned by the gas, electric, or gas and electric public utility as of December 31, 1997.  “Books of account” for gas, gas and electric, and electric public utilities means the uniform system of accounts as promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and adopted by the Board of Public Utilities.  The following adjustments to entire net income shall be made pursuant to this section:

(A) Depreciation for property placed in service prior to January 1, 1998 shall be adjusted as follows:

(i) Depreciation for federal income tax purposes shall be disallowed in full.

(ii) A deduction shall be allowed for the New Jersey depreciation allowance.  The New Jersey depreciation allowance shall be computed for the single asset account described above based on the New Jersey tax basis as adjusted above as if all assets in the single asset account were first placed in service on January 1, 1998.  Depreciation shall be computed using the straight line method over a thirty-year life.  A full year's depreciation shall be allowed in the initial tax year.  No half-year convention shall apply.  The depreciable basis of the single account shall be reduced by the adjusted federal tax basis of assets sold, retired, or otherwise disposed of during any year on which gain or loss is recognized for federal income tax purposes as described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.

(B) Gains and losses on sales, retirements and other dispositions of assets placed in service prior to January 1, 1998 shall be recognized and reported on the same basis as for federal income tax purposes.

(C) The Director of the Division of Taxation shall promulgate regulations describing the methodology for allocating the single asset account in the event that a portion of the utility's operations are separated, spun-off, transferred to a separate company or otherwise desegregated.

(8) In the case of taxpayers that are gas, electric, gas and electric, or telecommunications public utilities as defined pursuant to subsection (q) of this section, the director shall have authority to promulgate rules and issue guidance correcting distortions and adjusting timing differences resulting from the adoption of P.L.1997, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-5.25 et al.).

(9) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, entire net income shall not include the income derived by a corporation organized in a foreign country from the international operation of a ship or ships, or from the international operation of aircraft, if such income is exempt from federal taxation pursuant to section 883 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.883 .

(10) Entire net income shall exclude all income of an alien corporation the activities of which are limited in this State to investing or trading in stocks and securities for its own account, investing or trading in commodities for its own account, or any combination of those activities, within the meaning of section 864 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.864 , as in effect on December 31, 1998.  Notwithstanding the previous sentence, if an alien corporation undertakes one or more infrequent, extraordinary or non-recurring activities, including but not limited to the sale of tangible property, only the income from such infrequent, extraordinary or non-recurring activity shall be subject to the tax imposed pursuant to P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-1 et seq. ), and that amount of income subject to tax shall be determined without regard to the allocation to that specific transaction of any general business expense of the taxpayer and shall be specifically assigned to this State for taxation by this State without regard to section 6 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-6 ).  For the purposes of this paragraph, “alien corporation” means a corporation organized under the laws of a jurisdiction other than the United States or its political subdivisions.

(11) No deduction shall be allowed for research and experimental expenditures, to the extent that those research and experimental expenditures are qualified research expenses or basic research payments for which an amount of credit is claimed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1993, c. 175 ( C.54:10A-5.24 ) unless those research and experimental expenditures are also used to compute a federal credit claimed pursuant to section 41 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.41 .

(12)(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (k) of section 168 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.168, subsection (b) of section 1400L of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986, 26 U.S.C. s.1400L , or any other federal law, for property acquired after September 10, 2001, the depreciation deduction otherwise allowed pursuant to section 167 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.167 , shall be determined pursuant to the provisions of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 ( 26 U.S.C. s.1 et seq. ) in effect on December 31, 2001.

(B) The director shall prescribe the rules and regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this paragraph, including, among others, those for determining the adjusted basis of the acquired property for the purposes of the Corporation Business Tax Act (1945), P.L.1945, c. 162.

(13)(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 179 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.179 , for property placed in service on or after January 1, 2004, the costs that a taxpayer may otherwise elect to treat as an expense which is not chargeable to a capital account shall be determined pursuant to the provisions of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 ( 26 U.S.C. s.1 et seq. ) in effect on December 31, 2002.

(B) The director shall prescribe the rules and regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this paragraph, including, among others, those for determining the adjusted basis of the acquired property for the purposes of the Corporation Business Tax Act (1945), P.L.1945, c. 162.

(14) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (i) of section 108 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 ( 26 U.S.C. s.108 ), for privilege periods beginning after December 31, 2008 and before January 1, 2011, entire net income shall include the amount of discharge of indebtedness income excluded for federal income tax purposes pursuant to subsection (i) of section 108 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 ( 26 U.S.C. s.108 ), and for privilege periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014 and before January 1, 2019, entire net income shall exclude the amount of discharge of indebtedness income included for federal income tax purposes, pursuant to subsection (i) of section 108 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 ( 26 U.S.C. s.108 ).

(15) Entire net income shall exclude the gain or income derived from the sale or assignment of a tax credit transfer certificate pursuant to section 7 of P.L.2011, c. 149 ( C.34:1B-248 ) and section 10 of P.L.2014, c. 63 ( C.34:1B-251 ).

(16)(A) There shall be allowed as a deduction an amount computed in accordance with this paragraph.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph, “net deferred tax liability” means deferred tax liabilities that exceed the deferred tax assets of the combined group, as computed in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and “net deferred tax asset” means that deferred tax assets exceed the deferred tax liabilities of the combined group, as computed in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

(C) Only publicly traded companies, including affiliated corporations participating in the filing of a publicly traded company's financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, as of the effective date of this paragraph, shall be eligible for this deduction.

(D) If the provisions of sections 18 through 23 of P.L.2018, c. 48 ( C.54:10A-4.6 to C.54:10A-4.11 ) result in an aggregate increase to the members' net deferred tax liability or an aggregate decrease to the members' net deferred tax asset, or an aggregate change from a net deferred tax asset to a net deferred tax liability, the combined group shall be entitled to a deduction, as determined in this paragraph.

(E) For 10 years beginning with the combined group's first privilege period beginning on or after January 1 of the fifth year after the effective date of P.L.2018, c. 48 ( C.54:10A-5.41 and C.54:10A-4.6 to C.54:10A-4.11 ) , a combined group shall be entitled to a deduction from combined group entire net income equal to one-tenth of the amount necessary to offset the increase in the net deferred tax liability or decrease in the net deferred tax asset, or aggregate change from a net deferred tax asset to a net deferred tax liability.  Such increase in the net deferred tax liability or decrease in the net deferred tax asset or the aggregate change from a net deferred tax asset to a net deferred tax liability shall be computed based on the change that would result from the imposition of the unitary reporting requirements under sections 1 and 18 through 23 of P.L.2018, c. 48 ( C.54:10A-4.6 to C.54:10A-4.11  1) but for the deduction provided under this paragraph as of the effective date of this paragraph.

(F) The deferred tax impact determined in subparagraph (E) of this paragraph must be converted to the annual Deferred Tax Deduction amount, as follows:

(i) the deferred tax impact determined in subparagraph (E) of this paragraph shall be divided by the rate determined under section 5 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-5 ) at the effective date of P.L.2018, c. 48 ( C.54:10A-5.41 et al.);

(ii) the resulting amount shall be further divided by the New Jersey unitary business allocation factor that was used by the combined group in the calculation of the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as described in subparagraph (E) of this paragraph;

(iii) the resulting amount represents the total net Deferred Tax Deduction available over the ten-year period as described in subparagraph (E) of this paragraph.

(G) The deduction calculated under this paragraph shall not be adjusted as a result of any events happening subsequent to such calculation, including, but not limited to, any disposition or abandonment of assets.  Such deduction shall be calculated without regard to the federal tax effect and shall not alter the tax basis of any asset.  If the deduction under this section is greater than combined group entire net income, any excess deduction shall be carried forward and applied as a deduction to combined group entire net income in future privilege periods until fully utilized.

(H) Any combined group intending to claim a deduction under this paragraph shall file a statement with the director on or before July 1 of the year subsequent to the first privilege period for which a combined return is required.  Such statement shall specify the total amount of the deduction which the combined group claims on such form and in such manner as prescribed by the director.  No deduction shall be allowed under this paragraph for any privilege period except to the extent claimed on such timely filed statement in accordance with this paragraph.

(l) “Real estate investment trust” shall mean any corporation, trust or association qualifying and electing to be taxed as a real estate investment trust under federal law.

(m) “Financial business corporation” shall mean any corporate enterprise which is (1) in substantial competition with the business of national banks and which (2) employs moneyed capital with the object of making profit by its use as money, through discounting and negotiating promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange and other evidences of debt;  buying and selling exchange;  making of or dealing in secured or unsecured loans and discounts;  dealing in securities and shares of corporate stock by purchasing and selling such securities and stock without recourse, solely upon the order and for the account of customers;  or investing and reinvesting in marketable obligations evidencing indebtedness of any person, copartnership, association or corporation in the form of bonds, notes or debentures commonly known as investment securities;  or dealing in or underwriting obligations of the United States, any state or any political subdivision thereof, or of a corporate instrumentality of any of them.  This shall include, without limitation of the foregoing, business commonly known as industrial banks, dealers in commercial paper and acceptances, sales finance, personal finance, small loan and mortgage financing businesses, as well as any other enterprise employing moneyed capital coming into competition with the business of national banks;  provided that the holding of bonds, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness by individual persons not employed or engaged in the banking or investment business and representing merely personal investments not made in competition with the business of national banks, shall not be deemed financial business.  Nor shall “financial business” include national banks, production credit associations organized under the Farm Credit Act of 1933 or the Farm Credit Act of 1971, Pub.L.92-181 (12 U.S.C. s.2091 et seq.), stock and mutual insurance companies duly authorized to transact business in this State, security brokers or dealers or investment companies or bankers not employing moneyed capital coming into competition with the business of national banks, real estate investment trusts, or any of the following entities organized under the laws of this State:  credit unions, savings banks, savings and loan and building and loan associations, pawnbrokers, and State banks and trust companies.

(n) “International banking facility” shall mean a set of asset and liability accounts segregated on the books and records of a depository institution, United States branch or agency of a foreign bank, or an Edge or Agreement Corporation that includes only international banking facility time deposits and international banking facility extensions of credit as such terms are defined in section 204.8(a)(2) and section 204.8(a)(3) of Regulation D of the board of governors of the Federal Reserve System, 12 CFR Part 204, effective December 3, 1981.  In the event that the United States enacts a law, or the board of governors of the Federal Reserve System adopts a regulation which amends the present definition of international banking facility or of such facilities' time deposits or extensions of credit, the Commissioner of Banking and Insurance shall forthwith adopt regulations defining such terms in the same manner as such terms are set forth in the laws of the United States or the regulations of the board of governors of the Federal Reserve System.  The regulations of the Commissioner of Banking and Insurance shall thereafter provide the applicable definitions.

(o) “S corporation” means a corporation included in the definition of an “S corporation” pursuant to section 1361 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.1361 .

(p) “New Jersey S corporation” means a corporation that is an S corporation;  which has made a valid election pursuant to section 3 of P.L.1993, c. 173 ( C.54:10A-5.22 );  and which has been an S corporation continuously since the effective date of the valid election made pursuant to section 3 of P.L.1993, c. 173 ( C.54:10A-5.22 ).

(q) “Public Utility” means “public utility” as defined in R.S.48:2-13 .

(r) “Qualified investment partnership” means a partnership under this act that has more than 10 members or partners with no member or partner owning more than a 50% interest in the entity and that derives at least 90% of its gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans, and gains from the sale or other disposition of stocks or securities or foreign currencies or commodities or other similar income (including but not limited to gains from swaps, options, futures or forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing or trading in those stocks, securities, currencies or commodities, but “investment partnership” shall not include a “dealer in securities” within the meaning of section 1236 of the federal Internal Revenue Code of 1986 , 26 U.S.C. s.1236 .

(s) “Savings institution” means a state or federally chartered building and loan association, savings and loan association, or savings bank.

(t) “Partnership” means an entity classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.

(u) “Prior net operating loss conversion carryover” means a net operating loss incurred in a privilege period ending prior to July 31, 2019 and converted from a pre-allocation net operating loss to a post-allocation net operating loss as follows:

(1) As used in this subsection:

Base year” means the last privilege period ending prior to July 31, 2019.

Base year BAF” means the taxpayer's business allocation factor as provided in sections 6 through 10 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-6 through C.54:10A-10 ) for purposes of calculating entire net income for the base year, as such section was in effect for the last privilege period ending prior to July 31, 2019.

UNOL” means the unabsorbed portion of net operating loss as calculated under paragraph (6) of subsection (k) of this section as such paragraph was in effect for the last privilege period ending prior to July 31, 2019, that was not deductible in previous privilege periods and was eligible for carryover on the last day of the base year subject to the limitations for deduction under such subsection, including any net operating loss sustained by the taxpayer during the base year.

(2) The prior net operating loss conversion carryover shall be calculated as follows:

(A) The taxpayer shall first calculate the tax value of its UNOL for the base year and for each preceding privilege period for which there is a UNOL.  The value of the UNOL for each privilege period is equal to the product of (I) the amount of the taxpayer's UNOL for a privilege period, and (II) the taxpayer's base year BAF.  This result shall equal the taxpayer's prior net operating loss conversion carryover.

(B) The taxpayer shall continue to carry over its prior net operating loss conversion carryover to offset its allocated entire net income as provided in sections 6 through 10 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-6 through C.54:10A-10 ) for privilege periods ending on and after July 31, 2019.  Such carryover periods shall not exceed the twenty privilege periods following the privilege period of the initial loss.  The entire amount of the prior net operating loss conversion carryover for any privilege period shall be carried to the earliest of the privilege periods to which the loss may be carried.  The portion of the prior net operating loss conversion carryover which shall be carried to each of the other privilege periods shall be the excess, if any, of the amount of the prior net operating loss conversion carryover over the sum of the entire net income, computed without the exclusions permitted in paragraphs (4) and (5) of subsection (k) of this section allocated to this State.

(C) The prior net operating loss conversion carryover computed under this subsection shall be applied against the entire net income allocated to this State before the net operating loss carryover computed under subsection (v) of this section.

(v) “Net operating loss deduction” means the amount allowed as a deduction for the net operating loss carryover to the privilege period, calculated as follows:

(1) Net operating loss carryover.  A net operating loss for any privilege period ending on or after July 31, 2019, shall be a net operating loss carryover to each of the twenty privilege periods following the period of the loss.  The entire amount of the net operating loss for any privilege period shall be carried to the earliest of the privilege periods to which the loss may be carried.  The portion of the loss which shall be carried to each of the other privilege periods shall be the excess, if any, of the amount of the loss over the sum of the entire net income, computed without the exclusions permitted in paragraphs (4) and (5) of subsection (k) of this section allocated to this State.

(2) Net operating loss.  For purposes of this paragraph the term “net operating loss” means the excess of the deductions over the gross income used in computing entire net income, without regard to any net operating loss carryover, and computed without the exclusions in paragraphs (4) and (5) of subsection (k) of this section, allocated to this State pursuant to sections 6 through 10 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-6 through C.54:10A-10 ).

(3) Reduction for discharge of indebtedness.  A net operating loss for any privilege period ending on or after July 31, 2019, and any net operating loss carryover to such privilege period, shall be reduced by the amount excluded from federal taxable income under subparagraph (A) , (B) , or (C) of paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of section 108 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.108 , for the privilege period of the discharge of indebtedness.

(4) A net operating loss carryover shall not include any net operating loss incurred during any privilege period ending prior to July 31, 2019.

(5) Change in ownership.  Where there is a change in 50% or more of the ownership of a corporation because of redemption or sale of stock and the corporation changes the trade or business giving rise to the loss, no net operating loss sustained before the changes may be carried over to be deducted from income earned after such changes.  In addition, where the facts support the premise that the corporation was acquired under any circumstances for the primary purpose of the use of its net operating loss carryover, the director may disallow the carryover;  provided, however, this paragraph shall not apply between members of a combined group reported on a New Jersey combined return.

(w) “Taxable net income” means entire net income allocated to this State as calculated pursuant to sections 6 through 8 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-6 through 54:10A-8 ) as modified by subtracting any prior net operating loss conversion carryforward calculated pursuant to subsection (u) of this section, and any net operating loss calculated pursuant to subsection (v) of this section.

(x) “Affiliated group” means an affiliated group as defined in section 1504 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.1504 , except such affiliated group shall include all domestic corporations that are commonly owned, directly or indirectly, by any member of such affiliated group, without regard to whether the affiliated group includes (1) corporations included in more than one federal consolidated return, (2) corporations engaged in one or more unitary businesses, or (3) corporations that are not engaged in a unitary business with any other member of the affiliated group.

(y) “Combinable captive insurance company” means an entity that is treated as an association taxable as a corporation under the federal Internal Revenue Code:

(1) more than 50% of the voting stock of which is owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by a single entity that is treated as an association taxable as a corporation under the federal Internal Revenue Code, and not exempt from federal income tax;

(2) that is licensed as a captive insurance company under the laws of this State or another jurisdiction;

(3) whose business includes providing, directly and indirectly, insurance or reinsurance covering the risks of its parent, members of its affiliated group, or both;  and

(4) 50% or less of whose gross receipts for the privilege period consist of premiums from arrangements that constitute insurance for federal income tax purposes.

A combinable captive insurance company shall not be exempt under section 3 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-3 ).  A captive insurance company that does not meet the definition of combinable captive insurance company shall be excluded as provided in subsection k. of section 18 of P.L. 2018, c. 48 ( C.54:10A-4.6 ) and shall be exempt under section 3 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-3 ).

For purposes of this definition:

Affiliated group” shall have the same meaning as that term is given by section 1504 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.1504 , except that the term “common parent corporation” as used in section 1504 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.1504 , shall mean any person, as defined in section 7701 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.7701 , and references to “at least 80%” in section 1504 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.1504 , shall be read as “50% or more.”   Section 1504 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.1504 , shall be read without regard to the exclusions provided for in subsection (b) of that section.

Gross receipts” includes the amounts included in gross receipts for purposes of paragraph (15) of subsection (c) of section 501 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.501 , except that those amounts also include all premiums.

Premiums” includes consideration for annuity contracts and excludes any part of the consideration for insurance, reinsurance, or annuity contracts that do not provide bona fide insurance, reinsurance, or annuity benefits.

(z) “Combined group” means the group of all companies that have common ownership and are engaged in a unitary business, where at least one company is subject to tax under this chapter, and shall include all business entities, except as provided for under any section of the Corporation Business Tax Act (1945), P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-1 et seq. ).

(aa) “Common ownership” means that more than 50% of the voting control of each member of a combined group is directly or indirectly owned by a common owner or owners, either corporate or non-corporate, whether or not the owner or owners are members of the combined group.  Whether voting control is indirectly owned shall be determined in accordance with section 318 of the federal Internal Revenue Code , 26 U.S.C. s.318 .

(bb) “Group privilege period” means, if two or more members in the combined group file in the same federal consolidated tax return, the same income year as that used on the federal consolidated tax return and, in all other cases, the privilege period of the managerial member.

(cc) “Managerial member” means if the combined group has a common parent corporation and that common parent corporation is a taxable member, the managerial member shall be the common parent corporation.  In other cases, the combined group shall select a taxable member as its managerial member or, in the discretion of the director or upon failure of the combined group to select its managerial member, the director shall designate a taxable member of the combined group as managerial member.

(dd) “Member” means a business entity that is a part of a combined group.

(ee) “Nontaxable member” means a member that is:  (i) not subject to tax pursuant to the Corporation Business Tax Act (1945), P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-1 et seq. ) and is not a corporation exempted from the tax pursuant to section 3 of P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-3 ) except for a combinable captive insurance company;  or (ii) a New Jersey S Corporation which does not elect to be included in the combined group.

(ff) “Taxable member” means a member that is subject to tax pursuant to the Corporation Business Tax Act (1945), P.L.1945, c. 162 ( C.54:10A-1 et seq. ).

(gg) “Unitary business” means a single economic enterprise that is made up either of separate parts of a single business entity or of a group of business entities under common ownership that are sufficiently interdependent, integrated, and interrelated through their activities so as to provide a synergy and mutual benefit that produces a sharing or exchange of value among them and a significant flow of value among the separate parts.  “Unitary business” shall be construed to the broadest extent permitted under the Constitution of the United States.  A business conducted by a partnership which is in a unitary business with the combined group shall be treated as the business of the partners that are members of the combined group, whether the partnership interest is held directly or indirectly through a series of partnerships, to the extent of a partner's distributive share of partnership income.  The amount of partnership income to be included in the partner's entire net income shall be determined in accordance with subsection a. of section 3 of P.L.2001, c. 136 ( C.54:10A-15.6 ) or subsection a. of section 4 of P.L. 2001, c. 136 ( C.54:10A-15.7 ), as applicable.  A business conducted directly or indirectly by one corporation is unitary with that portion of a business conducted by another corporation through its direct or indirect interest in a partnership.

1 So in original;  probably should read C.54:10A-5.41 and C.54:10A-4.6 to C.54:10A-4.11.

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