The following principles may be applied in determining North Dakota income:
1. Any corporation organized under the laws of North Dakota and subject to a tax under the provisions of this chapter, which maintains no regular place of business outside this state, except a statutory office, must be taxed upon its entire income.
2. Corporations engaged in business within and without this state may be taxed only on such income as is derived from business transacted and property located within this state. The amount of such income apportionable to North Dakota must be determined as provided in chapter 57-38.1.
3. Any corporation liable to report under this chapter and owning or controlling, either directly or indirectly, substantially all of the voting capital stock of another corporation, or of other corporations, may be required to make a consolidated report showing the combined income, such assets of the corporation as are required for the purposes of this chapter, and such other information as the tax commissioner may require, but excluding intercorporate stock holdings and intercorporate accounts.
4. Any corporation liable to report under this chapter and owned or controlled either directly or indirectly by another corporation may be required to make a report consolidated with the owning company, showing the combined income, such assets of the corporation as are required for the purposes of this chapter, and such other information as the tax commissioner may require, but excluding intercorporate stock holdings and intercorporate accounts.
5. In case it appears to the tax commissioner that any arrangement exists in such a manner as to reflect improperly the business done, the segregable assets, or the entire income earned from business done in this state, the tax commissioner is authorized and empowered, in such manner as the tax commissioner may determine, to adjust the tax equitably.
6. The tax commissioner may permit or require the filing of a combined report if substantially all the voting capital stock of two or more corporations liable to report under this chapter is owned or controlled by the same interests. The tax commissioner may impose the tax provided by this chapter as though the combined entire income and segregated assets were those of one corporation, but in the computation, dividends received from any corporation whose assets, as distinguished from shares of stock, are included in the segregations may not be included in the income.
7. When any corporation required to make a return under this chapter conducts the business, whether under agreement or otherwise, in such manner as directly or indirectly to benefit the members or stockholders of the corporation, or any of them, or any person or persons, directly or indirectly interested in such business, by selling its products, or the goods or commodities in which it deals, at less than a fair price which might be obtained therefor, or if such a corporation, a substantial portion of whose capital stock is owned either directly or indirectly by another corporation, acquires and disposes of the products of the corporation owning the substantial portion of its capital stock, in such manner as to create a loss or improper income, the tax commissioner may require such facts as the tax commissioner deems necessary for the proper computation provided by this chapter, and for the purposes of this chapter may determine the amount which must be deemed to be the entire income, of the business of such corporation for the calendar or fiscal year. In determining such entire income, the tax commissioner shall have regard to the fair profits which, but for any agreement, arrangement, or understanding, might be or could have been obtained from dealing in such products, goods, or commodities.
8. If it appears to the tax commissioner that the segregation of assets shown by any report made under this chapter does not reflect properly the corporate activity or business done, or the income earned from corporate activity, or from business done in this state because of the character of the corporation's business and the character and location of its assets, the tax commissioner is authorized and empowered to adjust the tax equitably.
9. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, two or more North Dakota domestic corporations, affiliated as parent and subsidiary, and filing a federal consolidated tax return, shall file a combined report and consolidated return for income tax under this chapter.
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