North Dakota Century Code Title 44. Offices and Officers § 44-04-18. Access to public records--Electronically stored information

1. Except as otherwise specifically provided by law, all records of a public entity are public records, open and accessible for inspection during reasonable office hours.  As used in this subsection, “reasonable office hours” includes all regular office hours of a public entity.  If a public entity does not have regular office hours, the name and telephone number of a contact person authorized to provide access to the public entity's records must be posted on the door of the office of the public entity, if any.  Otherwise, the information regarding the contact person must be filed with the secretary of state for state-level entities, for public entities defined in subdivision c of subsection 13 of section 44-04-17.1 , the city auditor or designee of the city for city-level entities, or the county auditor or designee of the county for other entities.

2. Upon request for a copy of specific public records, any entity subject to subsection 1 shall furnish the requester one copy of the public records requested.  An initial request need not be made in person or in writing, and the copy must be mailed upon request.  A public entity may require written clarification of the request to determine what records are being requested, but may not ask for the motive or reason for requesting the records or for the identity of the person requesting public records.  A public entity may charge up to twenty-five cents per impression of a paper copy.  As used in this section, “paper copy” means a one-sided or two-sided duplicated copy of a size not more than eight and one-half by fourteen inches [19.05 by 35.56 centimeters].  For any copy of a record that is not a paper copy as defined in this section, the public entity may charge a reasonable fee for making the copy.  As used in this section, “reasonable fee” means the actual cost to the public entity of making the copy, including labor, materials, and equipment.  The entity may charge for the actual cost of postage to mail a copy of a record.  An entity may require payment before locating, redacting, making, or mailing the copy.  The public entity may withhold records pursuant to a request until such time as a requester provides payment for any outstanding balance for prior requests.  An entity may impose a fee not exceeding twenty-five dollars per hour per request, excluding the initial hour, for locating records, including electronic records, if locating the records requires more than one hour.  An entity may impose a fee not exceeding twenty-five dollars per hour per request, excluding the initial hour, for excising confidential or closed material under section 44-04-18.10 from the records, including electronic records.  If a public entity receives five or more requests from the same requester within seven days, the public entity may treat the requests as one request in computing the time it takes to locate and excise the records.  If the entity is not authorized to use the fees to cover the cost of providing or mailing the copy, or both, or if a copy machine is not readily available, the entity may make arrangements for the copy to be provided or mailed, or both, by another entity, public or private, and the requester shall pay the fee to that other entity.  This subsection does not apply to copies of public records for which a different fee is specifically provided by law.

3. Automation of public records must not erode the right of access to those records.  As each public entity increases its use of and dependence on electronic recordkeeping, each agency must provide reasonable public access to records electronically maintained and must ensure that exempt or confidential records are not disclosed except as otherwise permitted by law.  A public entity may not enter into a contract for the creation or maintenance of a public records database if that contract impairs the ability of the public to inspect or copy the public records of the agency, including public records online or stored in an electronic recordkeeping system used by the agency.  An electronic copy of a record must be provided upon request at no cost, other than costs allowed in subsection 2, except if the nature or volume of the public records requested to be accessed or provided requires extensive use of information technology resources, the agency may charge no more than the actual cost incurred for the extensive use of information technology resources incurred by the public entity.  “Extensive” is defined as a request for copies of electronic records which take more than one hour of information technology resources to produce.

4. Except as provided in this subsection, nothing in this section requires a public entity to create or compile a record that does not exist.  Access to an electronically stored record under this section, or a copy thereof, must be provided at the requester's option in either a printed document or through any other available medium.  A computer file is not an available medium if no means exist to separate or prevent the disclosure of any closed or confidential information contained in that file.  Except as reasonably necessary to reveal the organization of data contained in an electronically stored record, a public entity is not required to provide an electronically stored record in a different structure, format, or organization.  This section does not require a public entity to provide a requester with access to a computer terminal or mobile device.  A public entity is not required to provide a copy of a record that is available to the requester on the public entity's website or on the internet.  The public entity shall notify the requester the record is available online and direct the requester to the website where the record can be accessed.  If the requester does not have reasonable access to the internet due to lack of computer, lack of internet availability, or inability to use a computer or the internet, the public entity shall produce paper copies for the requester, but may charge the applicable fees under this section.

5. A state-level public entity as defined in subdivision a of subsection 13 of section 44-04-17.1 or a political subdivision as defined in subsection 11 of section 44-04-17.1 , may establish procedures for providing access from an outside location to any computer database or electronically filed or stored information maintained by that entity.  The procedures must address the measures that are necessary to maintain the confidentiality of information protected by federal or state law.  Except for access provided to another state-level public entity or political subdivision, the state or political subdivision may charge a reasonable fee for providing that outside access.  If the original information is keyed, entered, provided, compiled, or submitted by any political subdivision, the fees must be shared by the state and the political subdivision based on their proportional costs to make the data available.

6. Any request under this section for records in the possession of a public entity by a party to a criminal or civil action, adjudicative proceeding as defined in subsection 1 of section 28-32-01 , or arbitration in which the public entity is a party, or by an agent of the party, must comply with applicable discovery rules or orders and be made to the attorney representing that entity in the criminal or civil action, adjudicative proceeding, or arbitration.  The public entity may deny a request from a party or an agent of a party under this subsection if the request seeks records that are privileged under applicable discovery rules.

7. A denial of a request for records made under this section must describe the legal authority for the denial, or a statement that a record does not exist, and must be in writing if requested.

8. This section is violated when a person's right to review or receive a copy of a record that is not exempt or confidential is denied or unreasonably delayed or when a fee is charged in excess of the amount authorized in subsections 2 and 3.

9. It is not an unreasonable delay or a denial of access under this section to withhold from the public a record that is prepared at the express direction of, and for presentation to, a governing body until the record is mailed or otherwise provided to a member of the body or until the next meeting of the body, whichever occurs first.  It also is not an unreasonable delay or a denial of access to withhold from the public a working paper or preliminary draft until a final draft is completed, the record is distributed to a member of a governing body or discussed by the body at an open meeting, or work is discontinued on the draft but no final version has been prepared, whichever occurs first.

10. For public entities headed by a single individual, it is not an unreasonable delay or a denial of access to withhold from the public a working paper or preliminary draft until a final draft is completed, or work is discontinued on the draft but no final version has been prepared, whichever occurs first.  A working paper or preliminary draft shall be deemed completed if it can reasonably be concluded, upon a good-faith review, that all substantive work on it has been completed.

11. A disclosure of a requested record under this section is not a waiver of any copyright held by the public entity in the requested record or of any applicable evidentiary privilege.

12. A public entity may allow an individual to utilize the individual's own personal devices for duplication of records and, if so, shall establish reasonable procedures to protect the integrity of the records as long as the procedures are not used to prevent access to the records.

13. If repeated requests for records disrupt other essential functions of the public entity, the public entity may refuse to permit inspection of the records, or provide copies of the records.  A public entity refusing to provide access or copies of public records under this section shall state in writing the reasons supporting the refusal and provide the reasoning to the requester.  The requester may seek an attorney general's opinion under section 44-04-21.1 , on whether the public entity's decision was proper.


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