North Dakota Century Code Title 30.1. Uniform Probate Code § 30.1-04-19. (2-120) Parent-child relationship--Child conceived by assisted reproduction other than a child born to a gestational carrier

1. In this section:

a. “Birth mother” means a woman, other than a gestational carrier under section 30.1-04-20 , who gives birth to a child of assisted reproduction.  The term is not limited to a woman who is the child's genetic mother.

b. “Child of assisted reproduction” means a child conceived by means of assisted reproduction by a woman other than a gestational carrier under section 30.1-04-20 .

c. “Third-party donor” means an individual who produces eggs or sperm used for assisted reproduction, whether or not for consideration.  The term does not include a husband who provides sperm, or a wife who provides eggs, that are used for assisted reproduction by the wife;  the birth mother of a child of assisted reproduction;  or an individual who is determined under subsection 5 or 6 to have a parent-child relationship with a child of assisted reproduction.

2. A parent-child relationship does not exist between a child of assisted reproduction and a third-party donor.

3. A parent-child relationship exists between a child of assisted reproduction and the child's birth mother.

4. Except as otherwise provided in subsections 9 and 10, a parent-child relationship exists between a child of assisted reproduction and the husband of the child's birth mother if the husband provided the sperm that the birth mother used during his lifetime for assisted reproduction, and the husband is the genetic father of the child.

5. A birth certificate identifying an individual other than the birth mother as the other parent of a child of assisted reproduction presumptively establishes a parent-child relationship between the child and that individual.

6. Except as otherwise provided in subsections 7, 9, and 10, and unless a parent-child relationship is established under subsection 4 or 5, a parent-child relationship exists between a child of assisted reproduction and an individual other than the birth mother who consented to assisted reproduction by the birth mother with intent to be treated as the other parent of the child.  Consent to assisted reproduction by the birth mother with intent to be treated as the other parent of the child is established if the individual:

a. Before or after the child's birth, signed a record that, considering all the facts and circumstances, evidences the individual's consent;  or

b. In the absence of a signed record under subdivision a, functioned as a parent of the child no later than two years after the child's birth;  intended to function as a parent of the child no later than two years after the child's birth but was prevented from carrying out that intent by death, incapacity, or other circumstances;  or intended to be treated as a parent of a posthumously conceived child if that intent is established by clear and convincing evidence.

7. For purposes of subdivision a of subsection 6, neither an individual who signed a record more than two years after the birth of the child, nor a relative of that individual who is not also a relative of the birth mother, inherits from or through the child unless the individual functioned as a parent of the child before the child reached the age of majority.

8. For purposes of subdivision b of subsection 6, if the birth mother is married and no divorce proceedings are pending or if the birth mother is a surviving spouse and at her deceased spouse's death no divorce proceedings were then pending then, in the absence of clear and convincing evidence to the contrary, her spouse or deceased spouse is deemed to have satisfied subdivision b of subsection 6.

9. If a married couple are divorced before placement of eggs, sperm, or embryos, a child resulting from the assisted reproduction is not a child of the birth mother's former spouse, unless the former spouse consented in a record that if assisted reproduction were to occur after divorce, the child would be treated as the former spouse's child.

10. If, in a record, an individual withdraws consent to assisted reproduction before placement of eggs, sperm, or embryos, a child resulting from the assisted reproduction is not a child of that individual, unless the individual subsequently satisfies the requirements of subsection 6.

11. If, under this section, an individual is a parent of a child of assisted reproduction who is conceived after the individual's death, the child is treated as in gestation at the individual's death for purposes of subdivision b of subsection 1 of section 30.1-04-04 if the child is in utero not later than thirty-six months after the individual's death;  or born not later than forty-five months after the individual's death.


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