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Montana Title 45. Crimes § 45-1-205. General time limitations

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(1)(a) A prosecution for deliberate, mitigated, or negligent homicide may be commenced at any time.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (1)(c) or (9), a prosecution for a felony offense under 45-5-502, 45-5-503, 45-5-504, 45-5-507(4) or (5), 45-5-625, or 45-5-627 may be commenced within 10 years after it is committed.

(c) A prosecution for an offense under 45-5-502, 45-5-503, 45-5-504, 45-5-507, 45-5-508, 45-5-602, 45-5-603, 45-5-625, 45-5-627, 45-5-704, or 45-5-705 may be commenced at any time if the victim was less than 18 years of age at the time that the offense occurred.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (7)(b) or as otherwise provided by law, prosecutions for other offenses are subject to the following periods of limitation:

(a) A prosecution for a felony must be commenced within 5 years after it is committed.

(b) A prosecution for a misdemeanor must be commenced within 1 year after it is committed.

(3) The periods prescribed in subsection (2) are extended in a prosecution for theft involving a breach of fiduciary obligation to an aggrieved person as follows:

(a) if the aggrieved person is a minor or incompetent, during the minority or incompetency or within 1 year after the termination of the minority or incompetency;

(b) in any other instance, within 1 year after the discovery of the offense by the aggrieved person or by a person who has legal capacity to represent an aggrieved person or has a legal duty to report the offense and is not personally a party to the offense or, in the absence of discovery, within 1 year after the prosecuting officer becomes aware of the offense.

(4) The period prescribed in subsection (2) must be extended in a prosecution for unlawful use of a computer, and prosecution must be brought within 1 year after the discovery of the offense by the aggrieved person or by a person who has legal capacity to represent an aggrieved person or has a legal duty to report the offense and is not personally a party to the offense or, in the absence of discovery, within 1 year after the prosecuting officer becomes aware of the offense.

(5) The period prescribed in subsection (2) is extended in a prosecution for misdemeanor fish and wildlife violations under Title 87, and prosecution must be brought within 3 years after an offense is committed.

(6) The period prescribed in subsection (2)(b) is extended in a prosecution for misdemeanor violations of the laws regulating the activities of outfitters and guides under Title 37, chapter 47, and prosecution must be brought within 3 years after an offense is committed.

(7)(a) An offense is committed either when every element occurs or, when the offense is based upon a continuing course of conduct, at the time when the course of conduct is terminated.  Time starts to run on the day after the offense is committed.

(b) A prosecution for theft under 45-6-301 may be commenced at any time during the 5 years following the date of the theft, whether or not the offender is in possession of or otherwise exerting unauthorized control over the property at the time the prosecution is commenced.  After the 5-year period ends, a prosecution may be commenced at any time if the offender is still in possession of or otherwise exerting unauthorized control over the property, except that the prosecution must be commenced within 1 year after the investigating officer discovers that the offender still possesses or is otherwise exerting unauthorized control over the property.

(8) A prosecution is commenced either when an indictment is found or an information or complaint is filed.

(9) If a suspect is conclusively identified by DNA testing after a time period prescribed in subsection (1)(b) has expired, a prosecution may be commenced within 1 year after the suspect is conclusively identified by DNA testing.

(10) A prosecution for reckless driving resulting in death may be commenced within 3 years after the offense is committed.

(11) A prosecution of careless driving resulting in death may be commenced within 3 years after the offense is committed.

(1) Except as otherwise provided by law, no person shall be prosecuted for any felony unless the indictment is found by a grand jury within three years next after the offense has been done or committed or unless a complaint for the same is filed before the magistrate within three years next after the offense has been done or committed and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(2) Except as otherwise provided by law, no person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any misdemeanor or other indictable offense below the grade of felony or for any fine or forfeiture under any penal statute unless the suit, information, or indictment for such offense is instituted or found within one year and six months from the time of committing the offense or incurring the fine or forfeiture or within one year for any offense the punishment of which is restricted by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars and to imprisonment not exceeding three months.

(3) Except as otherwise provided by law, no person shall be prosecuted for kidnapping under section 28-313, false imprisonment under section 28-314 or 28-315, child abuse under section 28-707, pandering under section 28-802, debauching a minor under section 28-805, or an offense under section 28-813 when the victim is under sixteen years of age at the time of the offense (a) unless the indictment for such offense is found by a grand jury within seven years next after the offense has been committed or within seven years next after the victim's sixteenth birthday, whichever is later, or (b) unless a complaint for such offense is filed before the magistrate within seven years next after the offense has been committed or within seven years next after the victim's sixteenth birthday, whichever is later, and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(4) Except as otherwise provided by law, no person shall be prosecuted for a violation of subsection (2) or (3) of section 28-831 (a) unless the indictment for such offense is found by a grand jury within seven years next after the offense has been committed or within seven years next after the victim's eighteenth birthday, whichever is later, or (b) unless a complaint for such offense is filed before the magistrate within seven years next after the offense has been committed or within seven years next after the victim's eighteenth birthday, whichever is later, and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(5) Except as otherwise provided by law, no person shall be prosecuted for an offense under section 28-813.01 or 28-1463.05 (a) unless the indictment for such offense is found by a grand jury within seven years next after the offense has been committed or within seven years next after the victim's eighteenth birthday, whichever is later, or (b) unless a complaint for such offense is filed before the magistrate within seven years next after the offense has been committed or within seven years next after the victim's eighteenth birthday, whichever is later, and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(6) No person shall be prosecuted for a violation of the Securities Act of Nebraska under section 8-1117 unless the indictment for such offense is found by a grand jury within five years next after the offense has been done or committed or unless a complaint for such offense is filed before the magistrate within five years next after the offense has been done or committed and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(7) No person shall be prosecuted for criminal impersonation under section 28-638, identity theft under section 28-639, or identity fraud under section 28-640 unless the indictment for such offense is found by a grand jury within five years next after the offense has been done or committed or unless a complaint for such offense is filed before the magistrate within five years next after the offense has been done or committed and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(8) No person shall be prosecuted for a violation of section 68-1017 if the aggregate value of all funds and other benefits obtained or attempted to be obtained is five hundred dollars or more unless the indictment for such offense is found by a grand jury within five years next after the offense has been done or committed or unless a complaint for such offense is filed before the magistrate within five years next after the offense has been done or committed and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(9) No person shall be prosecuted for knowing and intentional abuse, neglect, or exploitation of a vulnerable adult or senior adult under section 28-386 unless the indictment for such offense is found by a grand jury within six years next after the offense has been done or committed or unless a complaint for such offense is filed before the magistrate within six years next after the offense has been done or committed and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(10) Except as otherwise provided by law, no person shall be prosecuted for an offense under section 28-717 (a) unless the indictment for such offense is found by a grand jury within one year and six months next after the offense has been committed or within one year and six months next after the child reaches the age of majority, whichever is later, or (b) unless a complaint for such offense is filed before the magistrate within one year and six months next after the offense has been committed or within one year and six months next after the child reaches the age of majority, whichever is later, and a warrant for the arrest of the defendant has been issued.

(11) There shall not be any time limitations for prosecution or punishment for treason, murder, arson, forgery, sexual assault in the first or second degree under section 28-319 or 28-320, sexual assault of a child in the second or third degree under section 28-320.01, incest under section 28-703, sexual assault of a child in the first degree under section 28-319.01, labor trafficking of a minor or sex trafficking of a minor under subsection (1) of section 28-831, or an offense under section 28-1463.03;  nor shall there be any time limitations for prosecution or punishment for sexual assault in the third degree under section 28-320 when the victim is under sixteen years of age at the time of the offense.

(12) The time limitations prescribed in this section shall include all inchoate offenses pursuant to the Nebraska Criminal Code and compounding a felony pursuant to section 28-301.

(13) The time limitations prescribed in this section shall not extend to any person fleeing from justice.

(14) When any suit, information, or indictment for any crime or misdemeanor is limited by any statute to be brought or exhibited within any other time than is limited by this section, then the suit, information, or indictment shall be brought or exhibited within the time limited by such statute.

(15) If any suit, information, or indictment is quashed or the proceedings set aside or reversed on writ of error, the time during the pendency of such suit, information, or indictment so quashed, set aside, or reversed shall not be reckoned within this statute so as to bar any new suit, information, or indictment for the same offense.

(16) The changes made to this section by Laws 2004, LB 943, shall apply to offenses committed prior to April 16, 2004, for which the statute of limitations has not expired as of such date and to offenses committed on or after such date.

(17) The changes made to this section by Laws 2005, LB 713, shall apply to offenses committed prior to September 4, 2005, for which the statute of limitations has not expired as of such date and to offenses committed on or after such date.

(18) The changes made to this section by Laws 2009, LB 97, and Laws 2006, LB 1199, shall apply to offenses committed prior to May 21, 2009, for which the statute of limitations has not expired as of such date and to offenses committed on or after such date.

(19) The changes made to this section by Laws 2010, LB 809, shall apply to offenses committed prior to July 15, 2010, for which the statute of limitations has not expired as of such date and to offenses committed on or after such date.

(20) The changes made to this section by Laws 2016, LB 934, shall apply to offenses committed prior to April 19, 2016, for which the statute of limitations has not expired as of such date and to offenses committed on or after such date.

(21) The changes made to this section by Laws 2019, LB 519, shall apply to offenses committed prior to September 1, 2019, for which the statute of limitations has not expired as of such date and to offenses committed on or after such date.

Cite this article: FindLaw.com - Montana Title 45. Crimes § 45-1-205. General time limitations - last updated April 27, 2021 | https://codes.findlaw.com/mt/title-45-crimes/mt-code-ann-sect-45-1-205.html


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