Colorado Revised Statutes Title 8 Labor and Industry § 8-40-202 Employee




(1) “Employee” means:

(a)(I)(A) Every person in the service of the state, or of any county, city, town, or irrigation, drainage, or school district or any other taxing district therein, or of any public institution or administrative board thereof under any appointment or contract of hire, express or implied;  and every elective official of the state, or of any county, city, town, or irrigation, drainage, or school district or any other taxing district therein, or of any public institution or administrative board thereof;  and every member of the military forces of the state of Colorado while engaged in active service on behalf of the state under orders from competent authority.  Police officers and firefighters who are regularly employed shall be deemed employees within the meaning of this paragraph (a), as shall also sheriffs and deputy sheriffs, regularly employed, and all persons called to serve upon any posse in pursuance of the provisions of section 30-10-516, C.R.S ., during the period of their service upon such posse, and all members of volunteer fire departments, including any person receiving a retirement pension under section 31-30-1122, C.R.S ., who serves as an active volunteer firefighter of a fire department subsequent to retirement pursuant to section 31-30-1132, C.R.S ., or any person ordered by the chief or a designee of the chief's at the scene of an emergency or during the period of an emergency to become a member of that department for the duration of an emergency, and to perform the duties of a firefighter, and only if the person who is so ordered reports any claim within ten days of the cessation of the emergency, volunteer rescue teams or groups, volunteer disaster teams, volunteer ambulance teams or groups, and volunteer search teams in any county, city, town, municipality, or legally organized fire protection district or ambulance district in the state of Colorado, and all members of the civil air patrol, Colorado wing, while said persons are actually performing duties as volunteer firefighters or as members of such volunteer rescue teams or groups, volunteer disaster teams, volunteer ambulance teams or groups, or volunteer search teams or as members of the civil air patrol, Colorado wing, and while engaged in organized drills, practice, or training necessary or proper for the performance of such duties.  Members of volunteer police departments, volunteer police reserves, and volunteer police teams or groups in any county, city, town, or municipality, while actually performing duties as volunteer police officers, may be deemed employees within the meaning of this paragraph (a) at the option of the governing body of such county or municipality.

(B) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-subparagraph (A) of this subparagraph (I), any elected or appointed official of any county, city, town, or irrigation, drainage, or school district or taxing district who receives no compensation for service rendered as such an official, other than reimbursement of actual expenses, may be deemed not to be an employee within the meaning of this paragraph (a) at the option of the governing body of such county, city, town, or district.  The option to exclude such officials as employees within the meaning of this paragraph (a) may be exercised as to any category of officials or as to any combination of categories of officials.  Any such option may be exercised for any policy year by the filing of a statement with the division not less than forty-five days before the start of the policy year for which the option is to be exercised.  If such a statement is in effect as to any category of such uncompensated officials, no official in said category shall be deemed an employee within the meaning of this paragraph (a).  The governing body shall notify each official of such action promptly at the time such election to exclude is exercised.

(II) The rate of compensation of such persons accidentally injured, or, if killed, the rate of compensation for their dependents, while serving upon such posse or as volunteer firefighters or as members of such volunteer police departments, volunteer police reserves, or volunteer police teams or groups or as members of such volunteer rescue teams or groups, volunteer disaster teams, volunteer ambulance teams or groups, or volunteer search teams or as members of the civil air patrol, Colorado wing, and of every nonsalaried person in the service of the state, or of any county, city, town, or irrigation, drainage, or school district therein, or of any public institution or administrative board thereof under any appointment or contract of hire, express or implied, including nonsalaried elective officials of the state, and of all members of the military forces of the state of Colorado shall be at the maximum rate provided by articles 40 to 47 of this title;  except that this subparagraph (II) shall apply to an official described in sub-subparagraph (B) of subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (a) only if no statement exercising the option to exclude such official as an employee within the meaning of this paragraph (a) is in effect.

(III) Any person who, as part of a rehabilitation program of the social services department of any county or city and county, is placed with a private employer for the purpose of training or learning trades or occupations shall be deemed while so engaged to be an employee of such private employer.  Any person who receives a work experience assignment to a position in any department or agency of any county or municipality, in any school district, in the office of any state agency or political subdivision thereof, or in any private for profit or any nonprofit agency pursuant to the provisions of part 7 of article 2 of title 26, C.R.S., shall be deemed while so assigned to be an employee of the respective department, agency, office, political subdivision, private for profit or nonprofit agency, or school district to which said person is assigned or, if so negotiated between the county and the entity to which the person is assigned, of the county arranging the work experience assignment.  Any person who receives a work experience assignment to a position in any federal office or agency pursuant to part 7 of article 2 of title 26, C.R.S., shall be deemed while so assigned to be an employee of the county arranging the work experience assignment.  The rate of compensation for such persons if accidentally injured or, if killed, for their dependents shall be based upon the wages normally paid in the community in which they reside for the type of work in which they are engaged at the time of such injury or death;  except that, if any such person is a minor, compensation to such minor for permanent disability, if any, or death benefits to such minor's dependents shall be paid at the maximum rate of compensation payable under articles 40 to 47 of this title at the time of the determination of such disability or of such death.

(IV) Except as provided in section 8-40-301(3) and section 8-40-302(7)(a) , any person who may at any time be receiving training under any work or job training or rehabilitation program sponsored by any department, board, commission, or institution of the state of Colorado or of any county, city and county, city, town, school district, or private or parochial school or college and who, as part of any such work or job training or rehabilitation program of any department, board, commission, or institution of the state of Colorado or of any county, city and county, city, town, school district, or private or parochial school or college, is placed with any employer for the purpose of training or learning trades or occupations shall be deemed while so engaged to be an employee of the respective department, board, commission, or institution of the state of Colorado or of the county, city and county, city, town, school district, or private or parochial school or college sponsoring such training or rehabilitation program unless the following conditions are met, in which case the placed person shall be deemed an employee of the employer with whom he or she is placed:

(A) The sponsoring entity and the employer agree that the employer shall cover the placed person under the employer's workers' compensation insurance;

(B) The employer does in fact insure and keep insured its liability for workers' compensation as provided in articles 40 to 47 of this title and does in fact cover the placed person under such insurance;  and

(C) With respect to agreements between sponsoring entities and employers entered into after April 1, 1991, the employer has been provided with notice of the provisions of this subparagraph (IV) and of subparagraphs (V) and (VI) of this paragraph (a).

(V) In the event a person placed with an employer is deemed an employee of the employer pursuant to subparagraph (IV) of this paragraph (a), the sponsoring entity shall not be subject to any liability for or on account of the death of or personal injury to the person so placed.  In the event such person is deemed an employee of the sponsoring entity pursuant to the said subparagraph (IV), the employer shall not be subject to any liability for or on account of the death of or personal injury to the person and shall not be required to carry workers' compensation insurance or to pay premiums for workers' compensation insurance with respect to the person.

(VI) The rate of compensation for a person placed pursuant to subparagraph (IV) of this paragraph (a) if accidentally injured or, if killed, for dependents of such person shall be based upon the wages normally paid in the community in which such person resides or in the community where said work or job training or rehabilitation program is being conducted for the type of work in which the person is engaged at the time of such injury or death, as determined by the director;  except that, if any such person is a minor, compensation for such minor for permanent disability, if any, or death benefits to such minor's dependents shall be paid at the maximum rate of compensation payable under articles 40 to 47 of this title at the time of the determination of such disability or death.

(b) Every person in the service of any person, association of persons, firm, or private corporation, including any public service corporation, personal representative, assignee, trustee, or receiver, under any contract of hire, express or implied, including aliens and also including minors, whether lawfully or unlawfully employed, who for the purpose of articles 40 to 47 of this title are considered the same and have the same power of contracting with respect to their employment as adult employees, but not including any persons who are expressly excluded from articles 40 to 47 of this title or whose employment is but casual and not in the usual course of the trade, business, profession, or occupation of the employer.  The following persons shall also be deemed employees and entitled to benefits at the maximum rate provided by said articles, and, in the event of injury or death, their dependents shall likewise be entitled to such maximum benefits, if and when the association, team, group, or organization to which they belong has elected to become subject to articles 40 to 47 of this title and has insured its liability under said articles:  All members of privately organized volunteer fire departments, volunteer rescue teams or groups, volunteer disaster teams, volunteer ambulance teams or groups, and volunteer search teams and organizations while performing their respective duties as members of such privately organized volunteer fire departments, volunteer rescue teams or groups, volunteer disaster teams, volunteer ambulance teams or groups, and volunteer search teams and organizations and while engaged in organized drills, practice, or training necessary or proper for the performance of their respective duties.

(2)(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any individual who performs services for pay for another shall be deemed to be an employee, irrespective of whether the common-law relationship of master and servant exists, unless such individual is free from control and direction in the performance of the service, both under the contract for performance of service and in fact and such individual is customarily engaged in an independent trade, occupation, profession, or business related to the service performed.  For purposes of this section, the degree of control exercised by the person for whom the service is performed over the performance of the service or over the individual performing the service shall not be considered if such control is exercised pursuant to the requirements of any state or federal statute or regulation.

(b)(I) To prove that an individual is engaged in an independent trade, occupation, profession, or business and is free from control and direction in the performance of the service, the individual and the person for whom services are performed may show by a preponderance of the evidence that the conditions set forth in paragraph (a) of this subsection (2) have been satisfied.  The parties may also prove independence through a written document.

(II) To prove independence it must be shown that the person for whom services are performed does not:

(A) Require the individual to work exclusively for the person for whom services are performed;  except that the individual may choose to work exclusively for such person for a finite period of time specified in the document;

(B) Establish a quality standard for the individual;  except that the person may provide plans and specifications regarding the work but cannot oversee the actual work or instruct the individual as to how the work will be performed;

(C) Pay a salary or at an hourly rate instead of at a fixed or contract rate;

(D) Terminate the work of the service provider during the contract period unless such service provider violates the terms of the contract or fails to produce a result that meets the specifications of the contract;

(E) Provide more than minimal training for the individual;

(F) Provide tools or benefits to the individual;  except that materials and equipment may be supplied;

(G) Dictate the time of performance;  except that a completion schedule and a range of negotiated and mutually agreeable work hours may be established;

(H) Pay the service provider personally instead of making checks payable to the trade or business name of such service provider;  and

(I) Combine the business operations of the person for whom service is provided in any way with the business operations of the service provider instead of maintaining all such operations separately and distinctly.

(III) A document may satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (b) if such document demonstrates by a preponderance of the evidence the existence of the factors listed in subparagraph (II) of this paragraph (b) as are appropriate to the parties' situation.  The existence of any one of these factors is not conclusive evidence that the individual is an employee.

(IV) If the parties use a written document pursuant to this paragraph (b), such document must be signed by both parties and may be the contract for performance of service or a separate document.  Such document shall create a rebuttable presumption of an independent contractor relationship between the parties where such document contains a disclosure, in type which is larger than the other provisions in the document or in bold-faced or underlined type, that the independent contractor is not entitled to workers' compensation benefits and that the independent contractor is obligated to pay federal and state income tax on any moneys earned pursuant to the contract relationship.  All signatures on any such document must be duly notarized.

(V) If the parties use a written document pursuant to this paragraph (b) and one of the parties is a professional whose license to practice a particular occupation under the laws of the state of Colorado requires such professional to exercise a supervisory function with regard to an entire project such supervisory role shall not affect such professional's status as part of the independent contractor relationship.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to conflict with section 8-40-301 or to relieve any obligations imposed pursuant thereto.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to remove the claimant's burden of proving the existence of an employer-employee relationship for purposes of receiving benefits pursuant to articles 40 to 47 of this title.

(e)(I) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a written agreement between a nonprofit youth sports organization and a coach, specifying that the coach is an independent contractor and not an employee of the nonprofit youth sports organization and otherwise satisfying the requirements of this paragraph (e), shall be conclusive evidence that the relationship between the nonprofit youth sports organization and the coach is an independent contractor relationship rather than an employment relationship and that the nonprofit youth sports organization is not obligated to secure compensation for the coach in accordance with the “Workers' Compensation Act of Colorado”. 1

(II) The written agreement shall contain a disclosure, in bold-faced, underlined, or large type, in a conspicuous location, and acknowledged by the parties by signature, initials, or other means demonstrating that the parties have read and understand the disclosure, indicating that the coach:

(A) Is an independent contractor and not an employee of the nonprofit youth sports organization;

(B) Is not entitled to workers' compensation benefits in connection with his or her contract with the nonprofit youth sports organization;  and

(C) Is obligated to pay federal and state income tax on any moneys paid pursuant to the contract for coaching services and that the nonprofit youth sports organization will not withhold any amounts from the coach for purposes of satisfying the coach's income tax liability.

(III) A written agreement between a nonprofit youth sports organization and a coach in accordance with this paragraph (e) shall not be conclusive evidence of an independent contractor relationship for purposes of any civil action instituted by a third party.

(IV) As used in this paragraph (e), “nonprofit youth sports organization” means an organization that is exempt from federal taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the federal “Internal Revenue Code of 1986 ”, as amended,  2 and is primarily engaged in conducting organized sports programs for persons under twenty-one years of age.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, “employee” includes a person who participates in a property tax work-off program established pursuant to article 3.7 of title 39, C.R.S.

1 Sections 8-40-101 et seq.
2 26 U.S.C.A. § 501.




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