Colorado Revised Statutes Title 1. Elections § 1-45-103. Definitions--repeal

As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) “Appropriate officer” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(1) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(1.3) “Ballot issue” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 1-1-104(2.3) ;  except that, for purposes of section 1-45-117 , “ballot issue” shall mean both a ballot issue as defined in this subsection (1.3) and a ballot question.

(1.5) “Ballot question” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 1-1-104(2.7) .

(2) “Candidate” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(2) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(3) “Candidate committee” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(3) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(4) “Candidate committee account” shall mean the account established by a candidate committee with a financial institution pursuant to section 3(9) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(5) “Conduit” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(4) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(6) (a) “Contribution” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(5) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(b) “Contribution” includes, with regard to a contribution for which the contributor receives compensation or consideration of less than equivalent value to such contribution, including, but not limited to, items of perishable or nonpermanent value, goods, supplies, services, or participation in a campaign-related event, an amount equal to the value in excess of such compensation or consideration as determined by the candidate committee.

(c) “Contribution” also includes:

(I) Any payment, loan, pledge, gift, advance of money, or guarantee of a loan made to any political organization;

(II) Any payment made to a third party on behalf of and with the knowledge of the political organization;  or

(III) The fair market value of any gift or loan of property made to any political organization.

(d) “Contribution” does not include the payment of legal fees to advise a candidate on compliance with campaign laws or regulations or to represent a candidate or candidate committee in any action in which the candidate or committee has been named as a defendant.  Such legal services are not undertaken “for the benefit of any candidate committee” or “for the purpose of promoting the candidate's nomination, retention, recall, or election” as those phrases are used in section 2(5)(a)(II) and (5)(a)(IV) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(e) “Contribution” does not include an intervention by the secretary of state, as authorized by section 1-45-111.5(1.5)(g) , in any action brought to enforce the provisions of article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article 45.

(7) “Corporation” means a domestic corporation incorporated under and subject to the “Colorado Business Corporation Act”, articles 101 to 117 of title 7, C.R.S., a domestic nonprofit corporation incorporated under and subject to the “Colorado Revised Nonprofit Corporation Act”, articles 121 to 137 of title 7, C.R.S., or any corporation incorporated under and subject to the laws of another state.  For purposes of this article, “domestic corporation” shall mean a for-profit or nonprofit corporation incorporated under and subject to the laws of this state, and “nondomestic corporation” shall mean a corporation incorporated under and subject to the laws of another state or foreign country.  For purposes of this article, “corporation” includes the parent of a subsidiary corporation or any subsidiaries of the parent, as applicable.

(7.3)(a) “Donation” means:

(I) The payment, loan, pledge, gift, or advance of money, or the guarantee of a loan, made to any person for the purpose of making an independent expenditure;

(II) Any payment made to a third party that relates to, and is made for the benefit of, any person that makes an independent expenditure;

(III) The fair market value of any gift or loan of property that is given to any person for the purpose of making an independent expenditure;  or

(IV) Anything of value given, directly or indirectly, to any person for the purpose of making an independent expenditure.

(b) “Donation” shall not include a transfer by a membership organization of a portion of a member's dues for an independent expenditure sponsored by such membership organization.

(7.5) “Earmark” means a designation, instruction, or encumbrance that directs the transmission by the recipient of all or part of a donation to a third party for the purpose of making one or more independent expenditures in excess of one thousand dollars.

(8) “Election cycle” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(6) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(9) “Electioneering communication” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(7) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(10)(a) “Expenditure” has the same meaning as set forth in section 2(8) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(b) “Expenditure” does not include legal services paid to defend a candidate or candidate committee against any action brought to enforce the provisions of article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article 45.

(10.5) “Foreign corporation” means:

(a) A parent corporation or the subsidiary of a parent corporation formed under the laws of a foreign country that is functionally equivalent to a domestic corporation;

(b) A parent corporation or the subsidiary of a parent corporation in which one or more foreign persons hold a combined ownership interest that exceeds fifty percent;

(c) A parent corporation or the subsidiary of a parent corporation in which one or more foreign persons hold a majority of the positions on the corporation's board of directors;  or

(d) A parent corporation or the subsidiary of a parent corporation whose United States-based operations, or whose decision-making with respect to political activities, falls under the direction or control of a foreign entity, including the government of a foreign country.

(11) “Independent expenditure” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(9) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(11.5) “Independent expenditure committee” means one or more persons that make an independent expenditure in an aggregate amount in excess of one thousand dollars or that collect in excess of one thousand dollars from one or more persons for the purpose of making an independent expenditure.

(12)(a) “Issue committee” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(10) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(b) For purposes of section 2(10)(a)(I) of article XXVIII of the state constitution , “major purpose” means support of or opposition to a ballot issue or ballot question that is reflected by:

(I) An organization's specifically identified objectives in its organizational documents at the time it is established or as such documents are later amended;  or

(II) An organization's demonstrated pattern of conduct based upon its:

(A) Annual expenditures in support of or opposition to a ballot issue or ballot question;  or

(B) Production or funding, or both, of written or broadcast communications, or both, in support of or opposition to a ballot issue or ballot question.

(c) The provisions of paragraph (b) of this subsection (12) are intended to clarify, based on the decision of the Colorado court of appeals in Independence Institute v. Coffman, 209 P.3d 1130 (Colo. App. 2008) , cert. denied, 558 U.S. 1024, 130 S. Ct. 165, 175 L. Ed. 479 (2009) , section 2(10)(a)(I) of article XXVIII of the state constitution and not to make a substantive change to said section 2(10)(a)(I).

(12.5) “Media outlet” means a publication or broadcast medium that transmits news, feature stories, entertainment, or other information to the public through various distribution channels, including, without limitation, newspapers;  magazines;  radio;  and broadcast, cable, or satellite television.

(12.7) “Obligating” means, in connection with a named candidate, agreeing to spend in excess of one thousand dollars for an independent expenditure or to give, pledge, loan, or purchase one or more goods, services, or other things of value that have a fair market value in excess of one thousand dollars as an independent expenditure.  “Obligating” shall not require that the total amount in excess of one thousand dollars be finally determined at the time of the agreement to spend moneys for an independent expenditure or to give, pledge, loan, or purchase anything of value.

(13) “Person” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(11) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(14) “Political committee” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(12) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(14.5) “Political organization” means a political organization defined in section 527(e)(1) of the federal “Internal Revenue Code of 1986 ”, as amended, that is engaged in influencing or attempting to influence the selection, nomination, election, or appointment of any individual to any state or local public office in the state and that is exempt, or intends to seek any exemption, from taxation pursuant to section 527 of the internal revenue code .  “Political organization” shall not be construed to have the same meaning as “political organization” as defined in section 1-1-104(24) for purposes of the “Uniform Election Code of 1992”, articles 1 to 13 of this title.

(15) “Political party” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(13) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(15.3) “Regular biennial school election” means the election that is described in section 22-31-104(1), C.R.S .

(15.5) “Regular biennial school electioneering communication” has the same meaning as “electioneering communication” as defined in section 2(7) of article XXVIII of the state constitution ;  except that, for purpose of the definition of regular biennial school electioneering communication only, “candidate” as referenced in section 2(7)(a)(I) of said article means a candidate in a regular biennial school election and the requirements specified in section 2(7)(a)(II) mean a communication that is broadcast, printed, mailed, delivered, or distributed within sixty days before a regular biennial school election.  Except as otherwise specified in this subsection (15.5), the definition of “regular biennial school electioneering communication” is the same as that of “electioneering communication”.

(16) “Small donor committee” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(14) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .

(16.3)(a) “Small-scale issue committee” means an issue committee that has accepted or made contributions or expenditures in an amount that does not exceed five thousand dollars during an applicable election cycle for the major purpose of supporting or opposing any ballot issue or ballot question.

(b) The following are treated as a single small-scale issue committee:

(I) All small-scale issue committees that support or oppose a common ballot measure if the committees are established, financed, maintained, or controlled by a single corporation or its subsidiaries;

(II) All small-scale issue committees that support or oppose a common ballot measure if the committees are established, financed, maintained, or controlled by a single labor organization or the affiliated local units it directs;  or

(III) All small-scale issue committees that support or oppose a common ballot measure if the committees are established, financed, maintained, or controlled by substantially the same person, group of persons, or other organizations.

(c) This subsection (16.3) is repealed, effective June 30, 2019.

(16.5) “Spending” means funds expended influencing or attempting to influence the selection, nomination, election, or appointment of any individual to any state or local public office in the state and includes, without limitation, any purchase, payment, distribution, loan, advance, deposit, or gift of money or anything else of value by any political organization, a contract, promise, or agreement to expend funds made or entered into by any political organization, or any electioneering communication by any political organization.

(17) “Subsidiary” means a business entity having more than half of its stock owned by another entity or person, or a business entity of which a majority interest is controlled by another person or entity.

(18) “Unexpended campaign contributions” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2(15) of article XXVIII of the state constitution .


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