(a) On or before January 1, 2011, the state board shall adopt greenhouse gas emissions limits and emissions reduction measures by regulation to achieve the maximum technologically feasible and cost-effective reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in furtherance of achieving the statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit, to become operative beginning on January 1, 2012.
(b) In adopting regulations pursuant to this section and Part 5 (commencing with Section 38570 ), to the extent feasible and in furtherance of achieving the statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit, the state board shall do all of the following:
(1) Design the regulations, including distribution of emissions allowances where appropriate, in a manner that is equitable, seeks to minimize costs and maximize the total benefits to California, and encourages early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
(2) Ensure that activities undertaken to comply with the regulations do not disproportionately impact low-income communities.
(3) Ensure that entities that have voluntarily reduced their greenhouse gas emissions prior to the implementation of this section receive appropriate credit for early voluntary reductions.
(4) Ensure that activities undertaken pursuant to the regulations complement, and do not interfere with, efforts to achieve and maintain federal and state ambient air quality standards and to reduce toxic air contaminant emissions.
(5) Consider cost-effectiveness of these regulations.
(6) Consider overall societal benefits, including reductions in other air pollutants, diversification of energy sources, and other benefits to the economy, environment, and public health.
(7) Minimize the administrative burden of implementing and complying with these regulations.
(8) Minimize leakage.
(9) Consider the significance of the contribution of each source or category of sources to statewide emissions of greenhouse gases.
(c)(1) Unless otherwise required by context, terms in this subdivision shall have the definitions that apply pursuant to Section 95802 of Title 17 of the California Code of Regulations , as they read on January 1, 2017.
(2) The state board may adopt a regulation that establishes a system of market-based declining annual aggregate emissions limits for sources or categories of sources that emit greenhouse gases, applicable from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2030, inclusive, that the state board determines will achieve the maximum technologically feasible and cost-effective reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, in the aggregate, from those sources or categories of sources. In adopting a regulation applicable from January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2030, inclusive, pursuant to this subdivision, the state board shall do all of the following:
(A)(i) Establish a price ceiling. In establishing the price ceiling, the state board shall consider, using the best available science, all of the following:
(I) The need to avoid adverse impacts on resident households, businesses, and the state's economy.
(II) The 2020 tier prices of the allowance price containment reserve.
(III) The full social cost associated with emitting a metric ton of greenhouse gases.
(IV) The auction reserve price.
(V) The potential for environmental and economic leakage.
(ii) To implement the price ceiling, the state board shall develop a mechanism that consists of both of the following:
(I) Allowances remaining in the allowance price containment reserve as of December 31, 2020, shall be utilized solely for the purpose of sale at the price ceiling established by this section.
(II) If the allowances from the allowance price containment reserve are exhausted, the state board shall offer covered entities additional metric tons at the price ceiling if needed for compliance. All moneys generated pursuant to this clause shall be expended by the state board to achieve emissions reductions, on at least a metric ton for metric ton basis, that are real, permanent, quantifiable, verifiable, enforceable by the state board and in addition to any greenhouse gas emission reduction otherwise required by law or regulation and any other greenhouse gas emission reduction that otherwise would occur.
(B) Establish two price containment points at levels below the price ceiling. The state board shall offer to covered entities nontradable allowances for sale at these price containment points. The price containment points shall be established using two-thirds, divided equally, of the allowances in the allowance price containment reserve as of December 31, 2017.
(C) Require that current vintage allowances designated by the state board for auction that remain unsold in the auction holding account for more than 24 months to be transferred to the allowance price containment reserve.
(D) Evaluate and address concerns related to overallocation in the state board's determination of the number of available allowances for years 2021 to 2030, inclusive, as appropriate.
(E)(i) Establish offset credit limits according to the following:
(I) From January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2025, inclusive, a total of 4 percent of a covered entity's compliance obligation may be met by surrendering offset credits of which no more than one-half may be sourced from projects that do not provide direct environmental benefits in state.
(II) From January 1, 2026, to December 31, 2030, inclusive, a total of 6 percent of a covered entity's compliance obligation may be met by surrendering offset credits of which no more than one-half may be sourced from projects that do not provide direct environmental benefits in the state.
(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, “direct environmental benefits in the state” are the reduction or avoidance of emissions of any air pollutant in the state or the reduction or avoidance of any pollutant that could have an adverse impact on waters of the state.
(F) Develop approaches to increase offset projects in the state considering guidance provided by the Compliance Offsets Protocol Task Force, established pursuant to Section 38591.1 .
(G) Set industry assistance factors for allowance allocation commencing in 2021 at the levels applicable in the compliance period of 2015 to 2017, inclusive. The state board shall apply a declining cap adjustment factor to the industry allocation equivalent to the overall statewide emissions declining cap using the methodology from the compliance period of 2015 to 2017, inclusive.
(H) Establish allowance banking rules that discourage speculation, avoid financial windfalls, and consider the impact on complying entities and volatility in the market.
(I) Report to the Legislature, by December 31, 2025, on the progress toward meeting the greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets established pursuant to Sections 38550 and 38566 and the leakage risk posed by the regulation. The state board shall include recommendations to the Legislature on necessary statutory changes to the program to reduce leakage, including the potential for a border carbon adjustment, while maintaining the state's ability to reach its targets.
(J)(i) Report to the Legislature, in consultation with the Independent Emissions Market Advisory Committee, established pursuant to Section 38591.2 , if two consecutive auctions exceed the lower of the price containment levels established pursuant to subparagraph (B). The report shall assess the potential for allowance prices to reach the price ceiling for multiple auctions.
(ii) A report submitted to the Legislature pursuant to this section shall be submitted in compliance with Section 9795 of the Government Code .
(K) Report to the relevant fiscal and policy committees of the Legislature, including the Joint Committee on Climate Change Policies, on all of the following:
(i) Updates to the scoping plan prepared pursuant to Section 38561 prior to adopting the update.
(ii) Updates on the implementation of the scoping plan prepared pursuant to Section 38561 .
(iii) Updates on the implementation of the market-based compliance mechanism adopted pursuant to this subdivision.
(d) Any regulation adopted by the state board pursuant to this part or Part 5 (commencing with Section 38570 ) shall ensure all of the following:
(1) The greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved are real, permanent, quantifiable, verifiable, and enforceable by the state board.
(2) For regulations pursuant to Part 5 (commencing with Section 38570 ), the reduction is in addition to any greenhouse gas emission reduction otherwise required by law or regulation, and any other greenhouse gas emission reduction that otherwise would occur.
(3) If applicable, the greenhouse gas emission reduction occurs over the same time period and is equivalent in amount to any direct emission reduction required pursuant to this division.
(e) The state board shall rely upon the best available economic and scientific information and its assessment of existing and projected technological capabilities when adopting the regulations required by this section.
(f) The state board shall consult with the Public Utilities Commission in the development of the regulations as they affect electricity and natural gas providers in order to minimize duplicative or inconsistent regulatory requirements.
(g) The state board may revise regulations adopted pursuant to this section and adopt additional regulations to further the provisions of this division.
(h) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2031, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute which is enacted before that date, deletes or extends that date.
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