(a) The Legislature finds and declares that scientific data from needle exchange programs in the United States and in Europe have shown that the exchange of used hypodermic needles and syringes for clean hypodermic needles and syringes does not increase drug use in the population, can serve as an important bridge to treatment and recovery from drug abuse, and can curtail the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among the intravenous drug user population.
(b) In order to reduce the spread of HIV infection and bloodborne hepatitis among the intravenous drug user population within California, the Legislature hereby authorizes a clean needle and syringe exchange project pursuant to this chapter in any city, county, or city and county upon the action of a county board of supervisors and the local health officer or health commission of that county, or upon the action of the city council, the mayor, and the local health officer of a city with a health department, or upon the action of the city council and the mayor of a city without a health department.
(c) In order to reduce the spread of HIV infection, viral hepatitis, and other potentially deadly bloodborne infections, the State Department of Public Health may, notwithstanding any other law, authorize entities that provide services set forth in paragraph (1) of subdivision (d), and that have sufficient staff and capacity to provide the services described in Section 121349.1 , as determined by the department, to apply for authorization under this chapter to provide hypodermic needle and syringe exchange services consistent with state standards in any location where the department determines that the conditions exist for the rapid spread of HIV, viral hepatitis, or any other potentially deadly or disabling infections that are spread through the sharing of used hypodermic needles and syringes. Authorization shall be made after consultation with the local health officer and local law enforcement leadership, and after a period of public comment, as described in subdivision (e). In making the determination, the department shall balance the concerns of law enforcement with the public health benefits. The authorization shall not be for more than two years. Before the end of the two-year period, the department may reauthorize the program in consultation with the local health officer and local law enforcement leadership.
(d) In order for an entity to be authorized to conduct a project pursuant to this chapter, its application to the department shall demonstrate that the entity complies with all of the following minimum standards:
(1) The entity provides, directly or through referral, all of the following services:
(A) Drug abuse treatment services.
(B) HIV or hepatitis screening.
(C) Hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccination.
(D) Screening for sexually transmitted infections.
(E) Housing services for the homeless, for victims of domestic violence, or other similar housing services.
(F) Services related to provision of education and materials for the reduction of sexual risk behaviors, including, but not limited to, the distribution of condoms.
(2) The entity has the capacity to commence needle and syringe exchange services within three months of authorization.
(3) The entity has adequate funding to do all of the following at reasonably projected program participation levels:
(A) Provide needles and syringe exchange services for all of its participants.
(B) Provide HIV and viral hepatitis prevention education services for all of its participants.
(C) Provide for the safe recovery and disposal of used syringes and sharps waste from all of its participants.
(4) The entity has the capacity, and an established plan, to collect evaluative data in order to assess program impact, including, but not limited to, all of the following:
(A) The total number of persons served.
(B) The total number of syringes and needles distributed, recovered, and disposed of.
(C) The total numbers and types of referrals to drug treatment and other services.
(e) If the application is provisionally deemed appropriate by the department, the department shall, at least 90 days prior to approval of the application, provide for a period of public comment as follows:
(1) Post on the department's Internet Web site the name of the applicant, the nature of the services, and the location where the applying entity will provide the services.
(2) Send a written and an e-mail notice to the local health officer of the affected jurisdiction.
(3) Send a written and an e-mail notice to the chief of police, the sheriff, or both, as appropriate, of the jurisdictions in which the program will operate.
(f) The department shall establish and maintain on its Internet Web site the address and contact information of programs providing hypodermic needle and syringe exchange services pursuant to this chapter.
(g) The authorization provided under this section shall only be for a clean needle and syringe exchange project as described in Section 121349.1 .
(h) This section shall become inoperative on January 1, 2019, and as of that date is repealed.
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