(a) This article shall be known and may be cited as the False Claims Act.
(b) For purposes of this article:
(1) “Claim” means any request or demand, whether under a contract or otherwise, for money, property, or services, and whether or not the state or a political subdivision has title to the money, property, or services that meets either of the following conditions:
(A) Is presented to an officer, employee, or agent of the state or of a political subdivision.
(B) Is made to a contractor, grantee, or other recipient, if the money, property, or service is to be spent or used on a state or any political subdivision's behalf or to advance a state or political subdivision's program or interest, and if the state or political subdivision meets either of the following conditions:
(i) Provides or has provided any portion of the money, property, or service requested or demanded.
(ii) Reimburses the contractor, grantee, or other recipient for any portion of the money, property, or service that is requested or demanded.
(2) “Claim” does not include requests or demands for money, property, or services that the state or a political subdivision has paid to an individual as compensation for employment with the state or political subdivision or as an income subsidy with no restrictions on that individual's use of the money, property, or services.
(3) “Knowing” and “knowingly” mean that a person, with respect to information, does any of the following:
(A) Has actual knowledge of the information.
(B) Acts in deliberate ignorance of the truth or falsity of the information.
(C) Acts in reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information.
Proof of specific intent to defraud is not required.
(4) “Material” means having a natural tendency to influence, or be capable of influencing, the payment or receipt of money, property, or services.
(5) “Obligation” means an established duty, whether or not fixed, arising from an express or implied contractual, grantor-grantee, or licensor-licensee relationship, from a fee-based or similar relationship, from statute or regulation, or from the retention of any overpayment.
(6) “Political subdivision” includes any city, city and county, county, tax or assessment district, or other legally authorized local governmental entity with jurisdictional boundaries.
(7) “Political subdivision funds” means funds that are the subject of a claim.
(8) “Prosecuting authority” refers to the county counsel, city attorney, or other local government official charged with investigating, filing, and conducting civil legal proceedings on behalf of, or in the name of, a particular political subdivision.
(9) “Person” includes any natural person, corporation, firm, association, organization, partnership, limited liability company, business, or trust.
(10) “State funds” mean funds that are the subject of a claim.
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