31 U.S.C. § 5318 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 31. Money and Finance § 5318. Compliance, exemptions, and summons authority
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except as provided in subsection (b)(2), delegate duties and powers under this subchapter to an appropriate supervising agency and the United States Postal Service;
require a class of domestic financial institutions or nonfinancial trades or businesses to maintain appropriate procedures to ensure compliance with this subchapter and regulations prescribed under this subchapter or to guard against money laundering;
examine any books, papers, records, or other data of domestic financial institutions or nonfinancial trades or businesses relevant to the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of this subchapter;
summon a financial institution or nonfinancial trade or business, an officer or employee of a financial institution or nonfinancial trade or business (including a former officer or employee), or any person having possession, custody, or care of the reports and records required under this subchapter, to appear before the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate at a time and place named in the summons and to produce such books, papers, records, or other data, and to give testimony, under oath, as may be relevant or material to an investigation described in subsection (b);
exempt from the requirements of this subchapter any class of transactions within any State if the Secretary determines that--
under the laws of such State, that class of transactions is subject to requirements substantially similar to those imposed under this subchapter; and
there is adequate provision for the enforcement of such requirements;
(6) rely on examinations conducted by a State supervisory agency of a category of financial institution, if the Secretary determines that--
(A) the category of financial institution is required to comply with this subchapter and regulations prescribed under this subchapter; or
(B) the State supervisory agency examines the category of financial institution for compliance with this subchapter and regulations prescribed under this subchapter; and
prescribe an appropriate exemption from a requirement under this subchapter and regulations prescribed under this subchapter. The Secretary may revoke an exemption under this paragraph or paragraph (5) by actually or constructively notifying the parties affected. A revocation is effective during judicial review.
Limitations on summons power.--
Scope of power.--The Secretary of the Treasury may take any action described in paragraph (3) or (4) of subsection (a) only in connection with investigations for the purpose of civil enforcement of violations of this subchapter, section 21 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, section 411 of the National Housing Act, or chapter 2 of Public Law 91-508 ( 12 U.S.C. 1951 et seq. ) or any regulation under any such provision.
Authority to issue.--A summons may be issued under subsection (a)(4) only by, or with the approval of, the Secretary of the Treasury or a supervisory level delegate of the Secretary of the Treasury.
Administrative aspects of summons.--
Production at designated site.--A summons issued pursuant to this section may require that books, papers, records, or other data stored or maintained at any place be produced at any designated location in any State or in any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States not more than 500 miles distant from any place where the financial institution or nonfinancial trade or business operates or conducts business in the United States.
Fees and travel expenses.--Persons summoned under this section shall be paid the same fees and mileage for travel in the United States that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States.
No liability for expenses.--The United States shall not be liable for any expense, other than an expense described in paragraph (2), incurred in connection with the production of books, papers, records, or other data under this section.
Service of summons.--Service of a summons issued under this section may be by registered mail or in such other manner calculated to give actual notice as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.
Contumacy or refusal.--
Referral to Attorney General.--In case of contumacy by a person issued a summons under paragraph (3) or (4) of subsection (a) or a refusal by such person to obey such summons, the Secretary of the Treasury shall refer the matter to the Attorney General.
Jurisdiction of court.--The Attorney General may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which--
the investigation which gave rise to the summons is being or has been carried on;
the person summoned is an inhabitant; or
the person summoned carries on business or may be found,
to compel compliance with the summons.
Court order.--The court may issue an order requiring the person summoned to appear before the Secretary or his delegate to produce books, papers, records, and other data, to give testimony as may be necessary to explain how such material was compiled and maintained, and to pay the costs of the proceeding.
Failure to comply with order.--Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof.
Service of process.--All process in any case under this subsection may be served in any judicial district in which such person may be found.
Written and signed statement required.--No person shall qualify for an exemption under subsection (a)(5) unless the relevant financial institution or nonfinancial trade or business prepares and maintains a statement which--
describes in detail the reasons why such person is qualified for such exemption; and
contains the signature of such person.
Reporting of suspicious transactions.--
In general.--The Secretary may require any financial institution, and any director, officer, employee, or agent of any financial institution, to report any suspicious transaction relevant to a possible violation of law or regulation.
In general.--If a financial institution or any director, officer, employee, or agent of any financial institution, voluntarily or pursuant to this section or any other authority, reports a suspicious transaction to a government agency--
neither the financial institution, director, officer, employee, or agent of such institution (whether or not any such person is still employed by the institution), nor any other current or former director, officer, or employee of, or contractor for, the financial institution or other reporting person, may notify any person involved in the transaction that the transaction has been reported; and
no current or former officer or employee of or contractor for the Federal Government or of or for any State, local, tribal, or territorial government within the United States, who has any knowledge that such report was made may disclose to any person involved in the transaction that the transaction has been reported, other than as necessary to fulfill the official duties of such officer or employee.
Disclosures in certain employment references.--
Rule of construction.--Notwithstanding the application of subparagraph (A) in any other context, subparagraph (A) shall not be construed as prohibiting any financial institution, or any director, officer, employee, or agent of such institution, from including information that was included in a report to which subparagraph (A) applies--
in a written employment reference that is provided in accordance with section 18(w) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act in response to a request from another financial institution; or
in a written termination notice or employment reference that is provided in accordance with the rules of a self-regulatory organization registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission or the Commodity Futures Trading Commission,
except that such written reference or notice may not disclose that such information was also included in any such report, or that such report was made.
Information not required.--Clause (i) shall not be construed, by itself, to create any affirmative duty to include any information described in clause (i) in any employment reference or termination notice referred to in clause (i).
Liability for disclosures.--
In general.--Any financial institution that makes a voluntary disclosure of any possible violation of law or regulation to a government agency or makes a disclosure pursuant to this subsection or any other authority, and any director, officer, employee, or agent of such institution who makes, or requires another to make any such disclosure, shall not be liable to any person under any law or regulation of the United States, any constitution, law, or regulation of any State or political subdivision of any State, or under any contract or other legally enforceable agreement (including any arbitration agreement), for such disclosure or for any failure to provide notice of such disclosure to the person who is the subject of such disclosure or any other person identified in the disclosure.
Rule of construction.--Subparagraph (A) shall not be construed as creating--
any inference that the term “person”, as used in such subparagraph, may be construed more broadly than its ordinary usage so as to include any government or agency of government; or
any immunity against, or otherwise affecting, any civil or criminal action brought by any government or agency of government to enforce any constitution, law, or regulation of such government or agency.
Single designee for reporting suspicious transactions.--
In general.--In requiring reports under paragraph (1) of suspicious transactions, the Secretary of the Treasury shall designate, to the extent practicable and appropriate, a single officer or agency of the United States to whom such reports shall be made.
Duty of designee.--The officer or agency of the United States designated by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall refer any report of a suspicious transaction to any appropriate law enforcement, supervisory agency, or United States intelligence agency for use in the conduct of intelligence or counterintelligence activities, including analysis, to protect against international terrorism.
Coordination with other reporting requirements.--Subparagraph (A) shall not be construed as precluding any supervisory agency for any financial institution from requiring the financial institution to submit any information or report to the agency or another agency pursuant to any other applicable provision of law.
Anti-money laundering programs.--
In general.--In order to guard against money laundering through financial institutions, each financial institution shall establish anti-money laundering programs, including, at a minimum--
the development of internal policies, procedures, and controls;
the designation of a compliance officer;
an ongoing employee training program; and
an independent audit function to test programs.
Regulations.--The Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the appropriate Federal functional regulator (as defined in section 509 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act), may prescribe minimum standards for programs established under paragraph (1), and may exempt from the application of those standards any financial institution that is not subject to the provisions of the rules contained in part 103 of title 31, of the Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor rule thereto, for so long as such financial institution is not subject to the provisions of such rules.
Concentration accounts.--The Secretary may prescribe regulations under this subsection that govern maintenance of concentration accounts by financial institutions, in order to ensure that such accounts are not used to prevent association of the identity of an individual customer with the movement of funds of which the customer is the direct or beneficial owner, which regulations shall, at a minimum--
prohibit financial institutions from allowing clients to direct transactions that move their funds into, out of, or through the concentration accounts of the financial institution;
prohibit financial institutions and their employees from informing customers of the existence of, or the means of identifying, the concentration accounts of the institution; and
require each financial institution to establish written procedures governing the documentation of all transactions involving a concentration account, which procedures shall ensure that, any time a transaction involving a concentration account commingles funds belonging to 1 or more customers, the identity of, and specific amount belonging to, each customer is documented.
Due diligence for United States private banking and correspondent bank accounts involving foreign persons.--
In general.--Each financial institution that establishes, maintains, administers, or manages a private banking account or a correspondent account in the United States for a non-United States person, including a foreign individual visiting the United States, or a representative of a non-United States person shall establish appropriate, specific, and, where necessary, enhanced, due diligence policies, procedures, and controls that are reasonably designed to detect and report instances of money laundering through those accounts.
Additional standards for certain correspondent accounts.--
In general.--Subparagraph (B) shall apply if a correspondent account is requested or maintained by, or on behalf of, a foreign bank operating--
under an offshore banking license; or
under a banking license issued by a foreign country that has been designated--
as noncooperative with international anti-money laundering principles or procedures by an intergovernmental group or organization of which the United States is a member, with which designation the United States representative to the group or organization concurs; or
by the Secretary of the Treasury as warranting special measures due to money laundering concerns.
Policies, procedures, and controls.--The enhanced due diligence policies, procedures, and controls required under paragraph (1) shall, at a minimum, ensure that the financial institution in the United States takes reasonable steps--
to ascertain for any such foreign bank, the shares of which are not publicly traded, the identity of each of the owners of the foreign bank, and the nature and extent of the ownership interest of each such owner;
to conduct enhanced scrutiny of such account to guard against money laundering and report any suspicious transactions under subsection (g); and
to ascertain whether such foreign bank provides correspondent accounts to other foreign banks and, if so, the identity of those foreign banks and related due diligence information, as appropriate under paragraph (1).
Minimum standards for private banking accounts.--If a private banking account is requested or maintained by, or on behalf of, a non-United States person, then the due diligence policies, procedures, and controls required under paragraph (1) shall, at a minimum, ensure that the financial institution takes reasonable steps--
to ascertain the identity of the nominal and beneficial owners of, and the source of funds deposited into, such account as needed to guard against money laundering and report any suspicious transactions under subsection (g); and
to conduct enhanced scrutiny of any such account that is requested or maintained by, or on behalf of, a senior foreign political figure, or any immediate family member or close associate of a senior foreign political figure, that is reasonably designed to detect and report transactions that may involve the proceeds of foreign corruption.
Definitions.--For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:
Offshore banking license.--The term “offshore banking license” means a license to conduct banking activities which, as a condition of the license, prohibits the licensed entity from conducting banking activities with the citizens of, or with the local currency of, the country which issued the license.
Private banking account.--The term “private banking account” means an account (or any combination of accounts) that--
requires a minimum aggregate deposits of funds or other assets of not less than $1,000,000;
is established on behalf of 1 or more individuals who have a direct or beneficial ownership interest in the account; and
is assigned to, or is administered or managed by, in whole or in part, an officer, employee, or agent of a financial institution acting as a liaison between the financial institution and the direct or beneficial owner of the account.
Prohibition on United States correspondent accounts with foreign shell banks.--
In general.--A financial institution described in subparagraphs (A) through (G) of section 5312(a)(2) (in this subsection referred to as a “covered financial institution”) shall not establish, maintain, administer, or manage a correspondent account in the United States for, or on behalf of, a foreign bank that does not have a physical presence in any country.
Prevention of indirect service to foreign shell banks.--A covered financial institution shall take reasonable steps to ensure that any correspondent account established, maintained, administered, or managed by that covered financial institution in the United States for a foreign bank is not being used by that foreign bank to indirectly provide banking services to another foreign bank that does not have a physical presence in any country. The Secretary of the Treasury shall, by regulation, delineate the reasonable steps necessary to comply with this paragraph.
Exception.--Paragraphs (1) and (2) do not prohibit a covered financial institution from providing a correspondent account to a foreign bank, if the foreign bank--
is an affiliate of a depository institution, credit union, or foreign bank that maintains a physical presence in the United States or a foreign country, as applicable; and
is subject to supervision by a banking authority in the country regulating the affiliated depository institution, credit union, or foreign bank described in subparagraph (A), as applicable.
Definitions.--For purposes of this subsection--
the term “affiliate” means a foreign bank that is controlled by or is under common control with a depository institution, credit union, or foreign bank; and
the term “physical presence” means a place of business that--
is maintained by a foreign bank;
is located at a fixed address (other than solely an electronic address) in a country in which the foreign bank is authorized to conduct banking activities, at which location the foreign bank--
employs 1 or more individuals on a full-time basis; and
maintains operating records related to its banking activities; and
is subject to inspection by the banking authority which licensed the foreign bank to conduct banking activities.
Bank records related to anti-money laundering programs.--
Definitions.--For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:
Appropriate Federal banking agency.--The term “appropriate Federal banking agency” has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act ( 12 U.S.C. 1813 ).
Incorporated term.--The term “correspondent account” has the same meaning as in section 5318A(e)(1)(B) .
120-hour rule.--Not later than 120 hours after receiving a request by an appropriate Federal banking agency for information related to anti-money laundering compliance by a covered financial institution or a customer of such institution, a covered financial institution shall provide to the appropriate Federal banking agency, or make available at a location specified by the representative of the appropriate Federal banking agency, information and account documentation for any account opened, maintained, administered or managed in the United States by the covered financial institution.
Foreign bank records.--
Summons or subpoena of records.--
In general.--The Secretary of the Treasury or the Attorney General may issue a summons or subpoena to any foreign bank that maintains a correspondent account in the United States and request records related to such correspondent account, including records maintained outside of the United States relating to the deposit of funds into the foreign bank.
Service of summons or subpoena.--A summons or subpoena referred to in clause (i) may be served on the foreign bank in the United States if the foreign bank has a representative in the United States, or in a foreign country pursuant to any mutual legal assistance treaty, multilateral agreement, or other request for international law enforcement assistance.
Acceptance of service.--
Maintaining records in the United States.--Any covered financial institution which maintains a correspondent account in the United States for a foreign bank shall maintain records in the United States identifying the owners of such foreign bank and the name and address of a person who resides in the United States and is authorized to accept service of legal process for records regarding the correspondent account.
Law enforcement request.--Upon receipt of a written request from a Federal law enforcement officer for information required to be maintained under this paragraph, the covered financial institution shall provide the information to the requesting officer not later than 7 days after receipt of the request.
Termination of correspondent relationship.--
Termination upon receipt of notice.--A covered financial institution shall terminate any correspondent relationship with a foreign bank not later than 10 business days after receipt of written notice from the Secretary or the Attorney General (in each case, after consultation with the other) that the foreign bank has failed--
to comply with a summons or subpoena issued under subparagraph (A); or
to initiate proceedings in a United States court contesting such summons or subpoena.
Limitation on liability.--A covered financial institution shall not be liable to any person in any court or arbitration proceeding for terminating a correspondent relationship in accordance with this subsection.
Failure to terminate relationship.--Failure to terminate a correspondent relationship in accordance with this subsection shall render the covered financial institution liable for a civil penalty of up to $10,000 per day until the correspondent relationship is so terminated.
Identification and verification of accountholders.--
In general.--Subject to the requirements of this subsection, the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe regulations setting forth the minimum standards for financial institutions and their customers regarding the identity of the customer that shall apply in connection with the opening of an account at a financial institution.
Minimum requirements.--The regulations shall, at a minimum, require financial institutions to implement, and customers (after being given adequate notice) to comply with, reasonable procedures for--
verifying the identity of any person seeking to open an account to the extent reasonable and practicable;
maintaining records of the information used to verify a person's identity, including name, address, and other identifying information; and
consulting lists of known or suspected terrorists or terrorist organizations provided to the financial institution by any government agency to determine whether a person seeking to open an account appears on any such list.
Factors to be considered.--In prescribing regulations under this subsection, the Secretary shall take into consideration the various types of accounts maintained by various types of financial institutions, the various methods of opening accounts, and the various types of identifying information available.
Certain financial institutions.--In the case of any financial institution the business of which is engaging in financial activities described in section 4(k) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (including financial activities subject to the jurisdiction of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission), the regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed jointly with each Federal functional regulator (as defined in section 509 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, including the Commodity Futures Trading Commission) appropriate for such financial institution.
Exemptions.--The Secretary (and, in the case of any financial institution described in paragraph (4), any Federal agency described in such paragraph) may, by regulation or order, exempt any financial institution or type of account from the requirements of any regulation prescribed under this subsection in accordance with such standards and procedures as the Secretary may prescribe.
Effective date.--Final regulations prescribed under this subsection shall take effect before the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date of enactment of the International Money Laundering Abatement and Financial Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001.
Applicability of rules.--Any rules promulgated pursuant to the authority contained in section 21 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act ( 12 U.S.C. 1829b ) shall apply, in addition to any other financial institution to which such rules apply, to any person that engages as a business in the transmission of funds, including any person who engages as a business in an informal money transfer system or any network of people who engage as a business in facilitating the transfer of money domestically or internationally outside of the conventional financial institutions system.
Reporting of certain cross-border transmittals of funds.--
In general.--Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), the Secretary shall prescribe regulations requiring such financial institutions as the Secretary determines to be appropriate to report to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network certain cross-border electronic transmittals of funds, if the Secretary determines that reporting of such transmittals is reasonably necessary to conduct the efforts of the Secretary against money laundering and terrorist financing.
Limitation on reporting requirements.--Information required to be reported by the regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) shall not exceed the information required to be retained by the reporting financial institution pursuant to section 21 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder, unless--
the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Secretary jointly determine that a particular item or items of information are not currently required to be retained under such section or such regulations; and
the Secretary determines, after consultation with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, that the reporting of such information is reasonably necessary to conduct the efforts of the Secretary to identify cross-border money laundering and terrorist financing.
Form and manner of reports.--In prescribing the regulations required under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall, subject to paragraph (2), determine the appropriate form, manner, content, and frequency of filing of the required reports.
In general.--Before prescribing the regulations required under paragraph (1), and as soon as is practicable after the date of enactment of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives that--
identifies the information in cross-border electronic transmittals of funds that may be found in particular cases to be reasonably necessary to conduct the efforts of the Secretary to identify money laundering and terrorist financing, and outlines the criteria to be used by the Secretary to select the situations in which reporting under this subsection may be required;
outlines the appropriate form, manner, content, and frequency of filing of the reports that may be required under such regulations;
identifies the technology necessary for the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network to receive, keep, exploit, protect the security of, and disseminate information from reports of cross-border electronic transmittals of funds to law enforcement and other entities engaged in efforts against money laundering and terrorist financing; and
discusses the information security protections required by the exercise of the Secretary's authority under this subsection.
Consultation.--In reporting the feasibility report under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may consult with the Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group established by the Secretary, and any other group considered by the Secretary to be relevant.
In general.--Subject to subparagraph (B), the regulations required by paragraph (1) shall be prescribed in final form by the Secretary, in consultation with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, before the end of the 3-year period beginning on the date of enactment of the National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004.
Technological feasibility.--No regulations shall be prescribed under this subsection before the Secretary certifies to the Congress that the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network has the technological systems in place to effectively and efficiently receive, keep, exploit, protect the security of, and disseminate information from reports of cross-border electronic transmittals of funds to law enforcement and other entities engaged in efforts against money laundering and terrorist financing.
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