26 U.S.C. § 832 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 26. Internal Revenue Code § 832. Insurance company taxable income




 Definition of taxable income.--In the case of an insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 831 , the term “taxable income” means the gross income as defined in subsection (b)(1) less the deductions allowed by subsection (c).

 Definitions.--In the case of an insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 831 --

 Gross income.--The term “gross income” means the sum of--

 the combined gross amount earned during the taxable year, from investment income and from underwriting income as provided in this subsection, computed on the basis of the underwriting and investment exhibit of the annual statement approved by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners,

 gain during the taxable year from the sale or other disposition of property,

 all other items constituting gross income under subchapter B, except that, in the case of a mutual fire insurance company exclusively issuing perpetual policies, the amount of single deposit premiums paid to such company shall not be included in gross income,

 in the case of a mutual fire or flood insurance company whose principal business is the issuance of policies--

 for which the premium deposits are the same (regardless of the length of the term for which the policies are written), and

 under which the unabsorbed portion of such premium deposits not required for losses, expenses, or establishment of reserves is returned or credited to the policyholder on cancellation or expiration of the policy,

an amount equal to 2 percent of the premiums earned on insurance contracts during the taxable year with respect to such policies after deduction of premium deposits returned or credited during the same taxable year, and

 in the case of a company which writes mortgage guaranty insurance, the amount required by subsection (e)(5) to be subtracted from the mortgage guaranty account.

 Investment income.--The term “investment income” means the gross amount of income earned during the taxable year from interest, dividends, and rents, computed as follows:  To all interest, dividends, and rents received during the taxable year, add interest, dividends, and rents due and accrued at the end of the taxable year, and deduct all interest, dividends, and rents due and accrued at the end of the preceding taxable year.

 Underwriting income.--The term “underwriting income” means the premiums earned on insurance contracts during the taxable year less losses incurred and expenses incurred.

 Premiums earned.--The term “premiums earned on insurance contracts during the taxable year” means an amount computed as follows:

 From the amount of gross premiums written on insurance contracts during the taxable year, deduct return premiums and premiums paid for reinsurance.

 To the result so obtained, add 80 percent of the unearned premiums on outstanding business at the end of the preceding taxable year and deduct 80 percent of the unearned premiums on outstanding business at the end of the taxable year.

 To the result so obtained, in the case of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, and before January 1, 1993, add an amount equal to 3 1/3 percent of unearned premiums on outstanding business at the end of the most recent taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987.

For purposes of this subsection, unearned premiums shall include life insurance reserves, as defined in section 816(b) but determined as provided in section 807 .  For purposes of this subsection, unearned premiums of mutual fire or flood insurance companies described in paragraph (1)(D) means (with respect to the policies described in paragraph (1)(D)) the amount of unabsorbed premium deposits which the company would be obligated to return to its policyholders at the close of the taxable year if all of its policies were terminated at such time;  and the determination of such amount shall be based on the schedule of unabsorbed premium deposit returns for each such company then in effect.  Premiums paid by the subscriber of a mutual flood insurance company described in paragraph (1)(D) or issuing exclusively perpetual policies shall be treated, for purposes of computing the taxable income of such subscriber, in the same manner as premiums paid by a policyholder to a mutual fire insurance company described in subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (1).

 Losses incurred.--

 In general.--The term “losses incurred” means losses incurred during the taxable year on insurance contracts computed as follows:

 To losses paid during the taxable year, deduct salvage and reinsurance recovered during the taxable year.

 To the result so obtained, add all unpaid losses on life insurance contracts plus all discounted unpaid losses (as defined in section 846 ) outstanding at the end of the taxable year and deduct all unpaid losses on life insurance contracts plus all discounted unpaid losses outstanding at the end of the preceding taxable year.

 To the results so obtained, add estimated salvage and reinsurance recoverable as of the end of the preceding taxable year and deduct estimated salvage and reinsurance recoverable as of the end of the taxable year.

The amount of estimated salvage recoverable shall be determined on a discounted basis in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary.

 Reduction of deduction.--The amount which would (but for this subparagraph) be taken into account under subparagraph (A) shall be reduced by an amount equal to 15 percent of the sum of--

 tax-exempt interest received or accrued during such taxable year,

 the aggregate amount of deductions provided by sections 243 and 245 for--

 dividends (other than 100 percent dividends) received during the taxable year, and

 100 percent dividends received during the taxable year to the extent attributable (directly or indirectly) to prorated amounts, and

 the increase for the taxable year in policy cash values (within the meaning of section 805(a)(4)(F) ) of life insurance policies and annuity and endowment contracts to which section 264(f) applies.

In the case of a 100 percent dividend paid by an insurance company, the portion attributable to prorated amounts shall be determined under subparagraph (E)(ii).

 Exception for investments made before August 8, 1986.--

 In general.--Except as provided in clause (ii), subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any dividend or interest received or accrued on any stock or obligation acquired before August 8, 1986.

 Special rule for 100 percent dividends.--For purposes of clause (i), the portion of any 100 percent dividend which is attributable to prorated amounts shall be treated as received with respect to stock acquired on the later of--

 the date the payor acquired the stock or obligation to which the prorated amounts are attributable, or

 the 1st day on which the payor and payee were members of the same affiliated group (as defined in section 243(b)(2) ).

 Definitions.--For purposes of this paragraph--

 Prorated amounts.--The term “prorated amounts” means tax-exempt interest and dividends with respect to which a deduction is allowable under section 243 or 245 (other than 100 percent dividends).

 100 percent dividend.--

 In general.--The term “100 percent dividend” means any dividend if the percentage used for purposes of determining the deduction allowable under section 243 or 245(b) is 100 percent.

 Certain dividends received by foreign corporations.--A dividend received by a foreign corporation from a domestic corporation which would be a 100 percent dividend if section 1504(b)(3) did not apply for purposes of applying section 243(b)(2) shall be treated as a 100 percent dividend.

 Special rules for dividends subject to proration at subsidiary level.--

 In general.--In the case of any 100 percent dividend paid to an insurance company to which this part applies by any insurance company, the amount of the decrease in the deductions of the payee company by reason of the portion of such dividend attributable to prorated amounts shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of the decrease in the deductions (or increase in income) of the payor company attributable to the application of this section or section 805(a)(4)(A) to such amounts.

 Portion of dividend attributable to prorated amounts.--For purposes of this subparagraph, in determining the portion of any dividend attributable to prorated amounts--

 any dividend by the paying corporation shall be treated as paid first out of earnings and profits attributable to prorated amounts (to the extent thereof), and

 by determining the portion of earnings and profits so attributable without any reduction for the tax imposed by this chapter.

 Expenses incurred.--The term “expenses incurred” means all expenses shown on the annual statement approved by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, and shall be computed as follows:  To all expenses paid during the taxable year, add expenses unpaid at the end of the taxable year and deduct expenses unpaid at the end of the preceding taxable year.  For purposes of this subchapter, the term “expenses unpaid” shall not include any unpaid loss adjustment expenses shown on the annual statement, but such unpaid loss adjustment expenses shall be included in unpaid losses.  For the purpose of computing the taxable income subject to the tax imposed by section 831 , there shall be deducted from expenses incurred (as defined in this paragraph) all expenses incurred which are not allowed as deductions by subsection (c).

 Special rules for applying paragraph (4).--

 Reduction not to apply to life insurance reserves.--Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4) shall be applied with respect to insurance contracts described in section 816(b)(1)(B) by substituting “100 percent” for “80 percent” each place it appears in such subparagraph (B), and subparagraph (C) of paragraph (4) shall be applied by not taking such contracts into account.

 Special treatment of premiums attributable to insuring certain securities.--In the case of premiums attributable to insurance against default in the payment of principal or interest on securities described in section 165(g)(2)(C) with maturities of more than 5 years--

 subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4) shall be applied by substituting “90 percent” for “80 percent” each place it appears, and

 subparagraph (C) of paragraph (4) shall be applied by substituting “1 2/3 percent” for “3 1/3 percent”.

 Termination as insurance company taxable under .--Except as provided in section 381(c)(22) (relating to carryovers in certain corporate readjustments), if, for any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1993, the taxpayer ceases to be an insurance company taxable under section 831(a) , the aggregate adjustments which would be made under paragraph (4)(C) for such taxable year and subsequent taxable years but for such cessation shall be made for the taxable year preceding such cessation year.

 Treatment of companies which become taxable under .--

 Exception to phase-in for companies which were not taxable, etc., before 1987.--Subparagraph (C) of paragraph (4) shall not apply to any insurance company which, for each taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, was not subject to the tax imposed by section 821(a) or 831(a) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) by reason of being--

 subject to tax under section 821(c) (as so in effect), or

 described in section 501(c) (as so in effect) and exempt from tax under section 501(a) .

 Phase-in beginning at later date for companies not 1st taxable under in 1987.--In the case of an insurance company--

 which was not subject to the tax imposed by section 831(a) for its 1st taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, by reason of being subject to tax under section 831(b) , or described in section 501(c) and exempt from tax under section 501(a) , and

 which, for any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, was subject to the tax imposed by section 821(a) or 831(a) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986),

subparagraph (C) of paragraph (4) shall apply beginning with the 1st taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, for which such company is subject to the tax imposed by section 831(a) and shall be applied by substituting the last day of the preceding taxable year for “December 31, 1986” and the 1st day of the 7th succeeding taxable year for “January 1, 1993”.

 Treatment of certain reciprocal insurers.--In the case of a reciprocal (within the meaning of section 835(a) ) which reports (as required by State law) on its annual statement reserves on unearned premiums net of premium acquisition expenses--

 subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4) shall be applied by treating unearned premiums as including an amount equal to such expenses, and

 appropriate adjustments shall be made under subparagraph (c) of paragraph (4) to reflect the amount by which--

 such reserves at the close of the most recent taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, are greater or less than,

 80 percent of the sum of the amount under subclause (I) plus such premium acquisition expenses, [FN1]

 Special rules for applying paragraph (4) to title insurance premiums.--

 In general.--In the case of premiums attributable to title insurance--

 subparagraph (B) of paragraph (4) shall be applied by substituting “the discounted unearned premiums” for “80 percent of the unearned premiums” each place it appears, and

 subparagraph (C) of paragraph (4) shall not apply.

 Method of discounting.--For purposes of subparagraph (A), the amount of the discounted unearned premiums as of the end of any taxable year shall be the present value of such premiums (as of such time and separately with respect to premiums received in each calendar year) determined by using--

 the amount of the undiscounted unearned premiums at such time,

 the applicable interest rate, and

 the applicable statutory premium recognition pattern.

 Determination of applicable factors.--In determining the amount of the discounted unearned premiums as of the end of any taxable year--

 Undiscounted unearned premiums.--The term “undiscounted unearned premiums” means the unearned premiums shown in the yearly statement filed by the taxpayer for the year ending with or within such taxable year.

 Applicable interest rate.--The term “applicable interest rate” means the annual rate determined under 846(c)(2) for the calendar year in which the premiums are received.

 Applicable statutory premium recognition pattern.--The term “applicable statutory premium recognition pattern” means the statutory premium recognition pattern--

 which is in effect for the calendar year in which the premiums are received, and

 which is based on the statutory premium recognition pattern which applies to premiums received by the taxpayer in such calendar year.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, premiums received during any calendar year shall be treated as received in the middle of such year.

 Deductions allowed.--In computing the taxable income of an insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 831 , there shall be allowed as deductions:

 all ordinary and necessary expenses incurred, as provided in section 162 (relating to trade or business expenses);

 all interest, as provided in section 163 ;

 taxes, as provided in section 164 ;

 losses incurred, as defined in subsection (b)(5) of this section;

 capital losses to the extent provided in subchapter P ( sec. 1201 and following, relating to capital gains and losses) plus losses from capital assets sold or exchanged in order to obtain funds to meet abnormal insurance losses and to provide for the payment of dividends and similar distributions to policyholders.  Capital assets shall be considered as sold or exchanged in order to obtain funds to meet abnormal insurance losses and to provide for the payment of dividends and similar distributions to policyholders to the extent that the gross receipts from their sale or exchange are not greater than the excess, if any, for the taxable year of the sum of dividends and similar distributions paid to policyholders in their capacity as such, losses paid, and expenses paid over the sum of the items described in section 834(b) (other than paragraph (1)(D) thereof) and net premiums received.  In the application of section 1212 for purposes of this section, the net capital loss for the taxable year shall be the amount by which losses for such year from sales or exchanges of capital assets exceeds the sum of the gains from such sales or exchanges and whichever of the following amounts is the lesser:

 the taxable income (computed without regard to gains or losses from sales or exchanges of capital assets);  or

 losses from the sale or exchange of capital assets sold or exchanged to obtain funds to meet abnormal insurance losses and to provide for the payment of dividends and similar distributions to policyholders;

 debts in the nature of agency balances and bills receivable which become worthless within the taxable year;

 the amount of interest earned during the taxable year which under section 103 is excluded from gross income;

 the depreciation deduction allowed by section 167 and the deduction allowed by section 611 (relating to depletion);

 charitable, etc., contributions, as provided in section 170 ;

 deductions (other than those specified in this subsection) as provided in part VI of subchapter B ( sec. 161 and following, relating to itemized deductions for individuals and corporations) and in part I of subchapter D ( sec. 401 and following, relating to pension, profit-sharing, stock bonus plans, etc.);

 dividends and similar distributions paid or declared to policyholders in their capacity as such, except in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in subsection (b)(1)(C).  For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “dividends and similar distributions” includes amounts returned or credited to policyholders on cancellation or expiration of policies described in subsection (b)(1)(D).  For purposes of this paragraph, the term “paid or declared” shall be construed according to the method of accounting regularly employed in keeping the books of the insurance company;

 the special deductions allowed by part VIII of subchapter B ( sec. 241 and following, relating to dividends received);  and

 in the case of a company which writes mortgage guaranty insurance, the deduction allowed by subsection (e).

 Double deductions.--Nothing in this section shall permit the same item to be deducted more than once.

 Special deduction and income account.--In the case of a company which writes mortgage guaranty insurance--

 Additional deduction.--There shall be allowed as a deduction for the taxable year, if bonds are purchased as required by paragraph (2), the sum of--

 an amount representing the amount required by State law or regulation to be set aside in a reserve for mortgage guaranty insurance losses resulting from adverse economic cycles;  and

 an amount representing the aggregate of amounts so set aside in such reserve for the 8 preceding taxable years to the extent such amounts were not deducted under this paragraph in such preceding taxable years,

except that the deduction allowable for the taxable year under this paragraph shall not exceed the taxable income for the taxable year computed without regard to this paragraph or to any carryback of a net operating loss.  For purposes of this paragraph, the amount required by State law or regulation to be so set aside in any taxable year shall not exceed 50 percent of premiums earned on insurance contracts (as defined in subsection (b)(4)) with respect to mortgage guaranty insurance for such year.  For purposes of this subsection, all amounts shall be taken into account on a first-in-time basis.  The computation and deduction under this section of losses incurred (including losses resulting from adverse economic cycles) shall not be affected by the provisions of this subsection.  For purposes of this subsection, the terms “preceding taxable years” and “preceding taxable year” shall not include taxable years which began before January 1, 1967.

 Purchase of bonds.--The deduction under paragraph (1) shall be allowed only to the extent that tax and loss bonds are purchased in an amount equal to the tax benefit attributable to such deduction, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, on or before the date that any taxes (determined without regard to this subsection) due for the taxable year for which the deduction is allowed are due to be paid.  If a deduction would be allowed but for the fact that tax and loss bonds were not timely purchased, such deduction shall be allowed to the extent such purchases are made within a reasonable time, as determined by the Secretary, if all interest and penalties, computed as if this sentence did not apply, are paid.

 Mortgage guaranty account.--Each company which writes mortgage guaranty insurance shall, for purposes of this part, establish and maintain a mortgage guaranty account.

 Additions to account.--There shall be added to the mortgage guaranty account for each taxable year an amount equal to the amount allowed as a deduction for the taxable year under paragraph (1).

 Subtractions from account and inclusion in gross income.--After applying paragraph (4), there shall be subtracted for the taxable year from the mortgage guaranty account and included in gross income--

 the amount (if any) remaining which was added to the account for the tenth preceding taxable year,

 the excess (if any) of the aggregate amount in the mortgage guaranty account over the aggregate amount in the reserve referred to in paragraph (1)(A).  For purposes of determining such excess, the aggregate amount in the mortgage guaranty account shall be determined after applying subparagraph (A), and the aggregate amount in the reserve referred to in paragraph (1)(A) shall be determined by disregarding any amounts remaining in such reserve added for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1967,

 an amount (if any) equal to the net operating loss for the taxable year computed without regard to this subparagraph, and

 any amount improperly subtracted from the account under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) to the extent that tax and loss bonds were redeemed with respect to such amount.

If a company liquidates or otherwise terminates its mortgage guaranty insurance business and does not transfer or distribute such business in an acquisition of assets referred to in section 381(a) , the entire amount remaining in such account shall be subtracted.  Except in the case where a company transfers or distributes its mortgage guaranty insurance in an acquisition of assets referred to in section 381(a) , if the company is not subject to the tax imposed by section 831 for any taxable year, the entire amount in the account at the close of the preceding taxable year shall be subtracted from the account in such preceding taxable year.

 Lease guaranty insurance;  insurance of State and local obligations.--The provisions of this subsection shall also apply in all respects to a company which writes lease guaranty insurance or insurance on obligations the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103 .  In applying this subsection to such a company, any reference to mortgage guaranty insurance contained in this section shall be deemed to be a reference also to lease guaranty insurance and to insurance on obligations the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103 ;  and in the case of insurance on obligations the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103 , the references in paragraph (1) to “losses resulting from adverse economic cycles” include losses from declining revenues related to such obligations (as well as losses resulting from adverse economic cycles), and the time specified in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (5) shall be the twentieth preceding taxable year.

 Interinsurers.--In the case of a mutual insurance company which is an interinsurer or reciprocal underwriter--

 there shall be allowed as a deduction the increase for the taxable year in savings credited to subscriber accounts, or

 there shall be included as an item of gross income the decrease for the taxable year in savings credited to subscriber accounts.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “savings credited to subscriber accounts” means such portion of the surplus as is credited to the individual accounts of subscribers before the 16th day of the 3rd month following the close of the taxable year, but only if the company would be obligated to pay such amount promptly to such subscriber if he terminated his contract at the close of the company's taxable year.  For purposes of determining his taxable income, the subscriber shall treat any such savings credited to his account as a dividend paid or declared.

 Dividends within group.--In the case of an insurance company subject to tax under section 831(a) filing or required to file a consolidated return under section 1501 with respect to any affiliated group for any taxable year, any determination under this part with respect to any dividend paid by one member of such group to another member of such group shall be made as if such group were not filing a consolidated return.

[FN1]

 So in original.  Probably should be a period.





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