Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code § 12.002. Liability




(a) A person may not make, present, or use a document or other record with:

(1) knowledge that the document or other record is a fraudulent court record or a fraudulent lien or claim against real or personal property or an interest in real or personal property;

(2) intent that the document or other record be given the same legal effect as a court record or document of a court created by or established under the constitution or laws of this state or the United States or another entity listed in Section 37.01, Penal Code, evidencing a valid lien or claim against real or personal property or an interest in real or personal property;  and

(3) intent to cause another person to suffer:

(A) physical injury;

(B) financial injury;  or

(C) mental anguish or emotional distress.

(a-1) Except as provided by Subsection (a-2), a person may not file an abstract of a judgment or an instrument concerning real or personal property with a court or county clerk, or a financing statement with a filing office, if the person:

(1) is an inmate;  or

(2) is not licensed or regulated under Title 11, Insurance Code, and is filing on behalf of another person who the person knows is an inmate.

(a-2) A person described by Subsection (a-1) may file an abstract, instrument, or financing statement described by that subsection if the document being filed includes a statement indicating that:

(1) the person filing the document is an inmate;  or

(2) the person is filing the document on behalf of a person who is an inmate.

(b) A person who violates Subsection (a) or (a-1) is liable to each injured person for:

(1) the greater of:

(A) $10,000;  or

(B) the actual damages caused by the violation;

(2) court costs;

(3) reasonable attorney's fees;  and

(4) exemplary damages in an amount determined by the court.

(c) A person claiming a lien under Chapter 53, Property Code, is not liable under this section for the making, presentation, or use of a document or other record in connection with the assertion of the claim unless the person acts with intent to defraud.


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