New York Criminal Procedure Law § 530.12 Protection for victims of family offenses




1. When a criminal action is pending involving a complaint charging any crime or violation between spouses, former spouses, parent and child, or between members of the same family or household, as members of the same family or household are defined in subdivision one of section 530.11 of this article, the court, in addition to any other powers conferred upon it by this chapter may issue a temporary order of protection in conjunction with any securing order committing the defendant to the custody of the sheriff or as a condition of any order of recognizance or bail or an adjournment in contemplation of dismissal.

(a) In addition to any other conditions, such an order may require the defendant:  (1) to stay away from the home, school, business or place of employment of the family or household member or of any designated witness, provided that the court shall make a determination, and shall state such determination in a written decision or on the record, whether to impose a condition pursuant to this paragraph, provided further, however, that failure to make such a determination shall not affect the validity of such temporary order of protection.  In making such determination, the court shall consider, but shall not be limited to consideration of, whether the temporary order of protection is likely to achieve its purpose in the absence of such a condition, conduct subject to prior orders of protection, prior incidents of abuse, past or present injury, threats, drug or alcohol abuse, and access to weapons;

(2) to permit a parent, or a person entitled to visitation by a court order or a separation agreement, to visit the child at stated periods;

(3) to refrain from committing a family offense, as defined in subdivision one of section 530.11 of this article, or any criminal offense against the child or against the family or household member or against any person to whom custody of the child is awarded, or from harassing, intimidating or threatening such persons;

(4) to refrain from acts of commission or omission that create an unreasonable risk to the health, safety and welfare of a child, family or household member's life or health;

(5) to permit a designated party to enter the residence during a specified period of time in order to remove personal belongings not in issue in this proceeding or in any other proceeding or action under this chapter, the family court act or the domestic relations law;

(6)(A) to refrain from intentionally injuring or killing, without justification, any companion animal the defendant knows to be owned, possessed, leased, kept or held by the victim or a minor child residing in the household.

(B) “Companion animal”, as used in this section, shall have the same meaning as in subdivision five of section three hundred fifty of the agriculture and markets law;

(7)(A) to promptly return specified identification documents to the protected party, in whose favor the order of protection or temporary order of protection is issued;  provided, however, that such order may:  (i) include any appropriate provision designed to ensure that any such document is available for use as evidence in this proceeding, and available if necessary for legitimate use by the party against whom such order is issued;  and (ii) specify the manner in which such return shall be accomplished.

(B) For purposes of this subparagraph, “identification document” shall mean any of the following:  (i) exclusively in the name of the protected party:  birth certificate, passport, social security card, health insurance or other benefits card, a card or document used to access bank, credit or other financial accounts or records, tax returns, any driver's license, and immigration documents including but not limited to a United States permanent resident card and employment authorization document;  and (ii) upon motion and after notice and an opportunity to be heard, any of the following, including those that may reflect joint use or ownership, that the court determines are necessary and are appropriately transferred to the protected party:  any card or document used to access bank, credit or other financial accounts or records, tax returns, and any other identifying cards and documents.

(b) The court may issue an order, pursuant to section two hundred twenty-seven-c of the real property law, authorizing the party for whose benefit any order of protection has been issued to terminate a lease or rental agreement pursuant to section two hundred twenty-seven-c of the real property law.

2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a temporary order of protection issued or continued by a family court pursuant to section eight hundred thirteen of the family court act shall continue in effect, absent action by the appropriate criminal court pursuant to subdivision three of this section, until the defendant is arraigned upon an accusatory instrument filed pursuant to section eight hundred thirteen of the family court act in such criminal court.

3. The court may issue a temporary order of protection ex parte upon the filing of an accusatory instrument and for good cause shown.  When a family court order of protection is modified, the criminal court shall forward a copy of such modified order to the family court issuing the original order of protection;  provided, however, that where a copy of the modified order is transmitted to the family court by facsimile or other electronic means, the original copy of such modified order and accompanying affidavit shall be forwarded immediately thereafter.

3-a. Emergency powers when family court not in session;  issuance of temporary orders of protection.  Upon the request of the petitioner, a local criminal court may on an ex parte basis issue a temporary order of protection pending a hearing in family court, provided that a sworn affidavit, verified in accordance with subdivision one of section 100.30 of this chapter, is submitted:  (i) alleging that the family court is not in session;  (ii) alleging that a family offense, as defined in subdivision one of section eight hundred twelve of the family court act and subdivision one of section 530.11 of this article, has been committed;  (iii) alleging that a family offense petition has been filed or will be filed in family court on the next day the court is in session;  and (iv) showing good cause.  Upon appearance in a local criminal court, the petitioner shall be advised that he or she may continue with the proceeding either in family court or upon the filing of a local criminal court accusatory instrument in criminal court or both.  Upon issuance of a temporary order of protection where petitioner requests that it be returnable in family court, the local criminal court shall transfer the matter forthwith to the family court and shall make the matter returnable in family court on the next day the family court is in session, or as soon thereafter as practicable, but in no event more than four calendar days after issuance of the order.  The local criminal court, upon issuing a temporary order of protection returnable in family court pursuant to this subdivision, shall immediately forward, in a manner designed to insure arrival before the return date set in the order, a copy of the temporary order of protection and sworn affidavit to the family court and shall provide a copy of such temporary order of protection to the petitioner;  provided, however, that where a copy of the temporary order of protection and affidavit are transmitted to the family court by facsimile or other electronic means, the original order and affidavit shall be forwarded to the family court immediately thereafter.  Any temporary order of protection issued pursuant to this subdivision shall be issued to the respondent, and copies shall be filed as required in subdivisions six and eight of this section for orders of protection issued pursuant to this section.  Any temporary order of protection issued pursuant to this subdivision shall plainly state the date that such order expires which, in the case of an order returnable in family court, shall be not more than four calendar days after its issuance, unless sooner vacated or modified by the family court.  A petitioner requesting a temporary order of protection returnable in family court pursuant to this subdivision in a case in which a family court petition has not been filed shall be informed that such temporary order of protection shall expire as provided for herein, unless the petitioner files a petition pursuant to subdivision one of section eight hundred twenty-one of the family court act on or before the return date in family court and the family court issues a temporary order of protection or order of protection as authorized under article eight of the family court act.  Nothing in this subdivision shall limit or restrict the petitioner's right to proceed directly and without court referral in either a criminal or family court, or both, as provided for in section one hundred fifteen of the family court act and section 100.07 of this chapter.

3-b. Emergency powers when family court not in session;  modifications of orders of protection or temporary orders of protection.  Upon the request of the petitioner, a local criminal court may on an ex parte basis modify a temporary order of protection or order of protection which has been issued under article four, five, six or eight of the family court act pending a hearing in family court, provided that a sworn affidavit verified in accordance with subdivision one of section 100.30 of this chapter is submitted:  (i) alleging that the family court is not in session and (ii) showing good cause, including a showing that the existing order is insufficient for the purposes of protection of the petitioner, the petitioner's child or children or other members of the petitioner's family or household.  The local criminal court shall make the matter regarding the modification of the order returnable in family court on the next day the family court is in session, or as soon thereafter as practicable, but in no event more than four calendar days after issuance of the modified order.  The court shall immediately forward a copy of the modified order, if any, and sworn affidavit to the family court and shall provide a copy of such modified order, if any, and affidavit to the petitioner;  provided, however, that where copies of such modified order and affidavit are transmitted to the family court by facsimile or other electronic means, the original copies of such modified order and affidavit shall be forwarded to the family court immediately thereafter.  Any modified temporary order of protection or order of protection issued pursuant to this subdivision shall be issued to the respondent and copies shall be filed as required in subdivisions six and eight of this section for orders of protection issued pursuant to this section.

4. The court may issue or extend a temporary order of protection ex parte or on notice simultaneously with the issuance of a warrant for the arrest of defendant.  Such temporary order of protection may continue in effect until the day the defendant subsequently appears in court pursuant to such warrant or voluntarily or otherwise.

5. [Eff. until Sept. 1, 2015, pursuant to L.1995, c. 3, § 74, par. d.  See, also, opening paragraph below.] Upon sentencing on a conviction for any crime or violation between spouses, between a parent and child, or between members of the same family or household as defined in subdivision one of section 530.11 of this article, the court may in addition to any other disposition, including a conditional discharge or youthful offender adjudication, enter an order of protection.  Where a temporary order of protection was issued, the court shall state on the record the reasons for issuing or not issuing an order of protection.  The duration of such an order shall be fixed by the court and:  (A) in the case of a felony conviction, shall not exceed the greater of:  (i) eight years from the date of such sentencing, or (ii) eight years from the date of the expiration of the maximum term of an indeterminate or the term of a determinate sentence of imprisonment actually imposed;  or (B) in the case of a conviction for a class A misdemeanor, shall not exceed the greater of:  (i) five years from the date of such sentencing, or (ii) five years from the date of the expiration of the maximum term of a definite or intermittent term actually imposed;  or (C) in the case of a conviction for any other offense, shall not exceed the greater of:  (i) two years from the date of sentencing, or (ii) two years from the date of the expiration of the maximum term of a definite or intermittent term actually imposed.  For purposes of determining the duration of an order of protection entered pursuant to this subdivision, a conviction shall be deemed to include a conviction that has been replaced by a youthful offender adjudication.  In addition to any other conditions, such an order may require the defendant:

5. [Eff. Sept. 1, 2015, pursuant to L.1995, c. 3, § 74, par. d.  See, also, opening paragraph above.] Upon sentencing on a conviction for any crime or violation between spouses, between a parent and child, or between members of the same family or household as defined in subdivision one of section 530.11 of this article, the court may in addition to any other disposition, including a conditional discharge or youthful offender adjudication, enter an order of protection.  Where a temporary order of protection was issued, the court shall state on the record the reasons for issuing or not issuing an order of protection.  The duration of such an order shall be fixed by the court and, in the case of a felony conviction, shall not exceed the greater of:  (i) five years from the date of such sentencing, or (ii) three years from the date of the expiration of the maximum term of an indeterminate sentence of imprisonment actually imposed;  or in the case of a conviction for a class A misdemeanor, shall not exceed three years from the date of such sentencing;  or in the case of a conviction for any other offense, shall not exceed one year from the date of sentencing.  For purposes of determining the duration of an order of protection entered pursuant to this subdivision, a conviction shall be deemed to include a conviction that has been replaced by a youthful offender adjudication.  In addition to any other conditions, such an order may require the defendant: :

(a) to stay away from the home, school, business or place of employment of the family or household member, the other spouse or the child, or of any witness designated by the court, provided that the court shall make a determination, and shall state such determination in a written decision or on the record, whether to impose a condition pursuant to this paragraph, provided further, however, that failure to make such a determination shall not affect the validity of such order of protection.  In making such determination, the court shall consider, but shall not be limited to consideration of, whether the order of protection is likely to achieve its purpose in the absence of such a condition, conduct subject to prior orders of protection, prior incidents of abuse, extent of past or present injury, threats, drug or alcohol abuse, and access to weapons;

(b) to permit a parent, or a person entitled to visitation by a court order or a separation agreement, to visit the child at stated periods;

(c) to refrain from committing a family offense, as defined in subdivision one of section 530.11 of this article, or any criminal offense against the child or against the family or household member or against any person to whom custody of the child is awarded, or from harassing, intimidating or threatening such persons;  or

(d) to refrain from acts of commission or omission that create an unreasonable risk to the health, safety and welfare of a child, family or household member's life or health;

(e) to permit a designated party to enter the residence during a specified period of time in order to remove personal belongings not in issue in this proceeding or in any other proceeding or action under this chapter, the family court act or the domestic relations law.

6. An order of protection or a temporary order of protection issued pursuant to subdivision one, two, three, four or five of this section shall bear in a conspicuous manner the term “order of protection” or “temporary order of protection” as the case may be and a copy shall be filed by the clerk of the court with the sheriff's office in the county in which the complainant resides, or, if the complainant resides within a city, with the police department of such city.  The order of protection or temporary order of protection shall also contain the following notice:  “This order of protection will remain in effect even if the protected party has, or consents to have, contact or communication with the party against whom the order is issued.  This order of protection can only be modified or terminated by the court.  The protected party cannot be held to violate this order nor be arrested for violating this order.”.  The absence of such language shall not affect the validity of such order.  A copy of such order of protection or temporary order of protection may from time to time be filed by the clerk of the court with any other police department or sheriff's office having jurisdiction of the residence, work place, and school of anyone intended to be protected by such order.  A copy of the order may also be filed by the complainant at the appropriate police department or sheriff's office having jurisdiction.  Any subsequent amendment or revocation of such order shall be filed in the same manner as herein provided.

Such order of protection shall plainly state the date that such order expires.

6-a. The court shall inquire as to the existence of any other orders of protection between the defendant and the person or persons for whom the order of protection is sought.

7. A family offense subject to the provisions of this section which occurs subsequent to the issuance of an order of protection under this chapter shall be deemed a new offense for which the complainant may seek to file a new accusatory instrument and may file a family court petition under article eight of the family court act as provided for in section 100.07 of this chapter.

8. In any proceeding in which an order of protection or temporary order of protection or a warrant has been issued under this section, the clerk of the court shall issue to the complainant and defendant and defense counsel and to any other person affected by the order a copy of the order of protection or temporary order of protection and ensure that a copy of the order of protection or temporary order of protection be transmitted to the local correctional facility where the individual is or will be detained, the state or local correctional facility where the individual is or will be imprisoned, and the supervising probation department or department of corrections and community supervision where the individual is under probation or parole supervision.  The presentation of a copy of such order or a warrant to any peace officer acting pursuant to his or her special duties or police officer shall constitute authority for him or her to arrest a person who has violated the terms of such order and bring such person before the court and, otherwise, so far as lies within his or her power, to aid in securing the protection such order was intended to afford.  The protected party in whose favor the order of protection or temporary order of protection is issued may not be held to violate an order issued in his or her favor nor may such protected party be arrested for violating such order.

9. If no warrant, order or temporary order of protection has been issued by the court, and an act alleged to be a family offense as defined in section 530.11 of this chapter is the basis of the arrest, the magistrate shall permit the complainant to file a petition, information or accusatory instrument and for reasonable cause shown, shall thereupon hold such respondent or defendant, admit to, fix or accept bail, or parole him or her for hearing before the family court or appropriate criminal court as the complainant shall choose in accordance with the provisions of section 530.11 of this chapter.

10. Punishment for contempt based on a violation of an order of protection or temporary order of protection shall not affect the original criminal action, nor reduce or diminish a sentence upon conviction for the original crime or violation alleged therein or for a lesser included offense thereof.

11. If a defendant is brought before the court for failure to obey any lawful order issued under this section, or an order of protection issued by a court of competent jurisdiction in another state, territorial or tribal jurisdiction, and if, after hearing, the court is satisfied by competent proof that the defendant has willfully failed to obey any such order, the court may:

(a) revoke an order of recognizance or revoke an order of bail or order forfeiture of such bail and commit the defendant to custody;  or

(b) restore the case to the calendar when there has been an adjournment in contemplation of dismissal and commit the defendant to custody;  or

(c) revoke a conditional discharge in accordance with section 410.70 of this chapter and impose probation supervision or impose a sentence of imprisonment in accordance with the penal law based on the original conviction;  or

(d) revoke probation in accordance with section 410.70 of this chapter and impose a sentence of imprisonment in accordance with the penal law based on the original conviction.  In addition, if the act which constitutes the violation of the order of protection or temporary order of protection is a crime or a violation the defendant may be charged with and tried for that crime or violation.

(e) Repealed. 

12. The chief administrator of the courts shall promulgate appropriate uniform temporary orders of protection and orders of protection forms to be used throughout the state.  Such forms shall be promulgated and developed in a manner to ensure the compatability  [FN1] of such forms with the statewide computerized registry established pursuant to section two hundred twenty-one-a of the executive law.

13. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, an order of protection, or temporary order of protection when applicable, may be entered against a former spouse and persons who have a child in common, regardless of whether such persons have been married or have lived together at any time, or against a member of the same family or household as defined in subdivision one of section 530.11 of this article.

14. The people shall make reasonable efforts to notify the complainant alleging a crime constituting a family offense when the people have decided to decline prosecution of such crime, to dismiss the criminal charges against the defendant or to enter into a plea agreement.  The people shall advise the complainant of the right to file a petition in the family court pursuant to section 100.07 of this chapter and section one hundred fifteen of the family court act.

In any case where allegations of criminal conduct are transferred from the family court to the criminal court pursuant to paragraph (ii) of subdivision (b) of section eight hundred forty-six of the family court act, the people shall advise the family court making the transfer of any decision to file an accusatory instrument against the family court respondent and shall notify such court of the disposition of such instrument and the sentence, if any, imposed upon such respondent.

Release of a defendant from custody shall not be delayed because of the requirements of this subdivision.

15. Any motion to vacate or modify an order of protection or temporary order of protection shall be on notice to the non-moving party, except as provided in subdivision three-b of this section.

[FN1]

 So in original.  Probably should be “compatibility”.


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