California Civil Code Section 2938
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(a) A written assignment of an interest in leases, rents, issues, or profits of real property made in connection with an obligation secured by real property, irrespective of whether the assignment is denoted as absolute, absolute conditioned upon default, additional security for an obligation, or otherwise, shall, upon execution and delivery by the assignor, be effective to create a present security interest in existing and future leases, rents, issues, or profits of that real property. As used in this section, “leases, rents, issues, and profits of real property” includes the cash proceeds thereof. “Cash proceeds” means cash, checks, deposit accounts, and the like.
(b) An assignment of an interest in leases, rents, issues, or profits of real property may be recorded in the records of the county recorder in the county in which the underlying real property is located in the same manner as any other conveyance of an interest in real property, whether the assignment is in a separate document or part of a mortgage or deed of trust, and when so duly recorded in accordance with the methods, procedures, and requirements for recordation of conveyances of other interests in real property, (1) the assignment shall be deemed to give constructive notice of the content of the assignment with the same force and effect as any other duly recorded conveyance of an interest in real property and (2) the interest granted by the assignment shall be deemed fully perfected as of the time of recordation with the same force and effect as any other duly recorded conveyance of an interest in real property, notwithstanding a provision of the assignment or a provision of law that would otherwise preclude or defer enforcement of the rights granted the assignee under the assignment until the occurrence of a subsequent event, including, but not limited to, a subsequent default of the assignor, or the assignee's obtaining possession of the real property or the appointment of a receiver.
(c) Upon default of the assignor under the obligation secured by the assignment of leases, rents, issues, and profits, the assignee shall be entitled to enforce the assignment in accordance with this section. On and after the date the assignee takes one or more of the enforcement steps described in this subdivision, the assignee shall be entitled to collect and receive all rents, issues, and profits that have accrued but remain unpaid and uncollected by the assignor or its agent or for the assignor's benefit on that date, and all rents, issues, and profits that accrue on or after the date. The assignment shall be enforced by one or more of the following:
(1) The appointment of a receiver.
(2) Obtaining possession of the rents, issues, or profits.
(3) Delivery to any one or more of the tenants of a written demand for turnover of rents, issues, and profits in the form specified in subdivision (k), a copy of which demand shall also be delivered to the assignor; and a copy of which shall be mailed to all other assignees of record of the leases, rents, issues, and profits of the real property at the address for notices provided in the assignment or, if none, to the address to which the recorded assignment was to be mailed after recording.
(4) Delivery to the assignor of a written demand for the rents, issues, or profits, a copy of which shall be mailed to all other assignees of record of the leases, rents, issues, and profits of the real property at the address for notices provided in the assignment or, if none, to the address to which the recorded assignment was to be mailed after recording.
Moneys received by the assignee pursuant to this subdivision, net of amounts paid pursuant to subdivision (g), if any, shall be applied by the assignee to the debt or otherwise in accordance with the assignment or the promissory note, deed of trust, or other instrument evidencing the obligation, provided, however, that neither the application nor the failure to so apply the rents, issues, or profits shall result in a loss of any lien or security interest that the assignee may have in the underlying real property or any other collateral, render the obligation unenforceable, constitute a violation of Section 726 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or otherwise limit a right available to the assignee with respect to its security.
(d) If an assignee elects to take the action provided for under paragraph (3) of subdivision (c), the demand provided for therein shall be signed under penalty of perjury by the assignee or an authorized agent of the assignee and shall be effective as against the tenant when actually received by the tenant at the address for notices provided under the lease or other contractual agreement under which the tenant occupies the property or, if no address for notices is so provided, at the property. Upon receipt of this demand, the tenant shall be obligated to pay to the assignee all rents, issues, and profits that are past due and payable on the date of receipt of the demand, and all rents, issues, and profits coming due under the lease following the date of receipt of the demand, unless either of the following occurs:
(1) The tenant has previously received a demand that is valid on its face from another assignee of the leases, issues, rents, and profits sent by the other assignee in accordance with this subdivision and subdivision (c).
(2) The tenant, in good faith and in a manner that is not inconsistent with the lease, has previously paid, or within 10 days following receipt of the demand notice pays, the rent to the assignor.
Payment of rent to an assignee following a demand under an assignment of leases, rents, issues, and profits shall satisfy the tenant's obligation to pay the amounts under the lease. If a tenant pays rent to the assignor after receipt of a demand other than under the circumstances described in this subdivision, the tenant shall not be discharged of the obligation to pay rent to the assignee, unless the tenant occupies the property for residential purposes. The obligation of a tenant to pay rent pursuant to this subdivision and subdivision (c) shall continue until receipt by the tenant of a written notice from a court directing the tenant to pay the rent in a different manner or receipt by the tenant of a written notice from the assignee from whom the demand was received canceling the demand, whichever occurs first. This subdivision does not affect the entitlement to rents, issues, or profits as between assignees as set forth in subdivision (h).
(e) An enforcement action of the type authorized by subdivision (c), and a collection, distribution, or application of rents, issues, or profits by the assignee following an enforcement action of the type authorized by subdivision (c), shall not do any of the following:
(1) Make the assignee a mortgagee in possession of the property, except if the assignee obtains actual possession of the real property, or an agent of the assignor.
(2) Constitute an action, render the obligation unenforceable, violate Section 726 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or, other than with respect to marshaling requirements, otherwise limit any rights available to the assignee with respect to its security.
(3) Be deemed to create a bar to a deficiency judgment pursuant to a provision of law governing or relating to deficiency judgments following the enforcement of any encumbrance, lien, or security interest, notwithstanding that the action, collection, distribution, or application may reduce the indebtedness secured by the assignment or by a deed of trust or other security instrument.
The application of rents, issues, or profits to the secured obligation shall satisfy the secured obligation to the extent of those rents, issues, or profits, and, notwithstanding any provisions of the assignment or other loan documents to the contrary, shall be credited against any amounts necessary to cure any monetary default for purposes of reinstatement under Section 2924c.
(f) If cash proceeds of rents, issues, or profits to which the assignee is entitled following enforcement as set forth in subdivision (c) are received by the assignor or its agent for collection or by another person who has collected such rents, issues, or profits for the assignor's benefit, or for the benefit of a subsequent assignee under the circumstances described in subdivision (h), following the taking by the assignee of either of the enforcement actions authorized in paragraph (3) or (4) of subdivision (c), and the assignee has not authorized the assignor's disposition of the cash proceeds in a writing signed by the assignee, the rights to the cash proceeds and to the recovery of the cash proceeds shall be determined by the following:
(1) The assignee shall be entitled to an immediate turnover of the cash proceeds received by the assignor or its agent for collection or any other person who has collected the rents, issues, or profits for the assignor's benefit, or for the benefit of a subsequent assignee under the circumstances described in subdivision (h), and the assignor or other described party in possession of those cash proceeds shall turn over the full amount of cash proceeds to the assignee, less any amount representing payment of expenses authorized by the assignee in writing. The assignee shall have a right to bring an action for recovery of the cash proceeds, and to recover the cash proceeds, without the necessity of bringing an action to foreclose a security interest that it may have in the real property. This action shall not violate Section 726 of the Code of Civil Procedure or otherwise limit a right available to the assignee with respect to its security.
(2) As between an assignee with an interest in cash proceeds perfected in the manner set forth in subdivision (b) and enforced in accordance with paragraph (3) or (4) of subdivision (c) and another person claiming an interest in the cash proceeds, other than the assignor or its agent for collection or one collecting rents, issues, and profits for the benefit of the assignor, and subject to subdivision (h), the assignee shall have a continuously perfected security interest in the cash proceeds to the extent that the cash proceeds are identifiable. For purposes hereof, cash proceeds are identifiable if they are either (A) segregated or (B) if commingled with other funds of the assignor or its agent or one acting on its behalf, can be traced using the lowest intermediate balance principle, unless the assignor or other party claiming an interest in proceeds shows that some other method of tracing would better serve the interests of justice and equity under the circumstances of the case. The provisions of this paragraph are subject to any generally applicable law with respect to payments made in the operation of the assignor's business.
(g)(1) If the assignee enforces the assignment under subdivision (c) by means other than the appointment of a receiver and receives rents, issues, or profits pursuant to this enforcement, the assignor or another assignee of the affected real property may make written demand upon the assignee to pay the reasonable costs of protecting and preserving the property, including payment of taxes and insurance and compliance with building and housing codes, if any.
(2) On and after the date of receipt of the demand, the assignee shall pay for the reasonable costs of protecting and preserving the real property to the extent of any rents, issues, or profits actually received by the assignee, provided, however, that no such acts by the assignee shall cause the assignee to become a mortgagee in possession and the assignee's duties under this subdivision, upon receipt of a demand from the assignor or any other assignee of the leases, rents, issues, and profits pursuant to paragraph (1), shall not be construed to require the assignee to operate or manage the property, which obligation shall remain that of the assignor.
(3) The obligation of the assignee hereunder shall continue until the earlier of (A) the date on which the assignee obtains the appointment of a receiver for the real property pursuant to application to a court of competent jurisdiction, or (B) the date on which the assignee ceases to enforce the assignment.
(4) This subdivision does not supersede or diminish the right of the assignee to the appointment of a receiver.
(h) The lien priorities, rights, and interests among creditors concerning rents, issues, or profits collected before the enforcement by the assignee shall be governed by subdivisions (a) and (b). Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, if an assignee who has recorded its interest in leases, rents, issues, and profits prior to the recordation of that interest by a subsequent assignee seeks to enforce its interest in those rents, issues, or profits in accordance with this section after any enforcement action has been taken by a subsequent assignee, the prior assignee shall be entitled only to the rents, issues, and profits that are accrued and unpaid as of the date of its enforcement action and unpaid rents, issues, and profits accruing thereafter. The prior assignee shall have no right to rents, issues, or profits paid prior to the date of the enforcement action, whether in the hands of the assignor or any subsequent assignee. Upon receipt of notice that the prior assignee has enforced its interest in the rents, issues, and profits, the subsequent assignee shall immediately send a notice to any tenant to whom it has given notice under subdivision (c). The notice shall inform the tenant that the subsequent assignee cancels its demand that the tenant pay rent to the subsequent assignee.
(i)(1) This section shall apply to contracts entered into on or after January 1, 1997.
(2) Sections 2938 and 2938.1, as these sections were in effect prior to January 1, 1997, shall govern contracts entered into prior to January 1, 1997, and shall govern actions and proceedings initiated on the basis of these contracts.
(j) “Real property,” as used in this section, means real property or any estate or interest therein.
(k) The demand required by paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) shall be in the following form:
DEMAND TO PAY RENT TOPARTY OTHER THAN LANDLORD(SECTION 2938 OF THE CIVIL CODE)
Tenant: [Name of Tenant]
Property Occupied by Tenant: [Address]
Landlord: [Name of Landlord]
Secured Party: [Name of Secured Party]
Address: [Address for Payment of Rent to Secured Party and for Further Information]:
The secured party named above is the assignee of leases, rents, issues, and profits under [name of document] dated ___, and recorded at [recording information] in the official records of ___ County, California. You may request a copy of the assignment from the secured party at ___ (address).
THIS NOTICE AFFECTS YOUR LEASE OR RENTAL AGREEMENT RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS. YOU ARE THEREFORE ADVISED TO CONSULT AN ATTORNEY CONCERNING THOSE RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS REGARDING YOUR RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS UNDER THIS NOTICE.
IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUBDIVISION (C) OF SECTION 2938 OF THE CIVIL CODE, YOU ARE HEREBY DIRECTED TO PAY TO THE SECURED PARTY, ___ (NAME OF SECURED PARTY) AT ___ (ADDRESS), ALL RENTS UNDER YOUR LEASE OR OTHER RENTAL AGREEMENT WITH THE LANDLORD OR PREDECESSOR IN INTEREST OF LANDLORD, FOR THE OCCUPANCY OF THE PROPERTY AT ___ (ADDRESS OF RENTAL PREMISES) WHICH ARE PAST DUE AND PAYABLE ON THE DATE YOU RECEIVE THIS DEMAND, AND ALL RENTS COMING DUE UNDER THE LEASE OR OTHER RENTAL AGREEMENT FOLLOWING THE DATE YOU RECEIVE THIS DEMAND UNLESS YOU HAVE ALREADY PAID THIS RENT TO THE LANDLORD IN GOOD FAITH AND IN A MANNER NOT INCONSISTENT WITH THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN YOU AND THE LANDLORD. IN THIS CASE, THIS DEMAND NOTICE SHALL REQUIRE YOU TO PAY TO THE SECURED PARTY, ___ (NAME OF THE SECURED PARTY), ALL RENTS THAT COME DUE FOLLOWING THE DATE OF THE PAYMENT TO THE LANDLORD.
IF YOU PAY THE RENT TO THE UNDERSIGNED SECURED PARTY, ___ (NAME OF SECURED PARTY), IN ACCORDANCE WITH THIS NOTICE, YOU DO NOT HAVE TO PAY THE RENT TO THE LANDLORD. YOU WILL NOT BE SUBJECT TO DAMAGES OR OBLIGATED TO PAY RENT TO THE SECURED PARTY IF YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY RECEIVED A DEMAND OF THIS TYPE FROM A DIFFERENT SECURED PARTY.
[For other than residential tenants] IF YOU PAY RENT TO THE LANDLORD THAT BY THE TERMS OF THIS DEMAND YOU ARE REQUIRED TO PAY TO THE SECURED PARTY, YOU MAY BE SUBJECT TO DAMAGES INCURRED BY THE SECURED PARTY BY REASON OF YOUR FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH THIS DEMAND, AND YOU MAY NOT BE DISCHARGED FROM YOUR OBLIGATION TO PAY THAT RENT TO THE SECURED PARTY. YOU WILL NOT BE SUBJECT TO THOSE DAMAGES OR OBLIGATED TO PAY THAT RENT TO THE SECURED PARTY IF YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY RECEIVED A DEMAND OF THIS TYPE FROM A DIFFERENT ASSIGNEE.
Your obligation to pay rent under this demand shall continue until you receive either (1) a written notice from a court directing you to pay the rent in a manner provided therein, or (2) a written notice from the secured party named above canceling this demand.
The undersigned hereby certifies, under penalty of perjury, that the undersigned is an authorized officer or agent of the secured party and that the secured party is the assignee, or the current successor to the assignee, under an assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits executed by the landlord, or a predecessor in interest, that is being enforced pursuant to and in accordance with Section 2938 of the Civil Code.
Executed at __________, California, this ___ day of _______, ___.
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